The Origin of the Eliakim-Peter Typology, Part 1: Keys, Stewards, and Fathers, Oh My!

The key of David, typology, and the papacy
Isaiah 22:22 – “And I will place on his shoulder the key of the house of David. He shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open” is echoed in Revelation 3:7 – “And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: ‘The words of the holy one, the true one, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, who shuts and no one opens.'”

What is the Eliakim-Peter Typology claim?

The Eliakim-Peter typology is a now popular interpretation of Isaiah 22:15-24 that involves constructing a multi-faceted, complex typological relationship between it and two New Testament passages (Matthew 16:18-19 and Revelation 3:7). The interpretation attempts to correlate various Biblical and cultural concepts, words, and phrases from those passages. In recent years, it has become perhaps the most popular apologetic defense of the papacy. I will examine the particulars of the “interpretation” in a subsequent post but for the sake of simplicity, the current discussion is mostly focused on tracing the origin of the claim that Eliakim in Isaiah 22 prefigured Peter in Matthew 16 (and the papacy). I will also examine the recent developments in, and popularity of the claim.

Pope Gelasius I: substance and nature of consecrated elements

“The sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, which we receive, is a divine thing, because by it we are made partakers of the divine-nature. Yet the substance or nature of the bread and wine does not cease. And assuredly the image and the similitude of the body and blood of Christ are celebrated in the performance of the mysteries.”

Pope Gelasius I, ~496 AD

I’ve come across a few mentions of this quote concerning the nature and substance of sacramental elements (bread and wine). The best source I can find is here. It’s in Philip Schaff’s 1884 edition of “History of the Christian Church” and he cites the following:

De duabus naturis in Christo Adv. Eutychen et Nestorium (in the Bibl. Max. Patrum, tom. viii. p. 703) … “et tamen esse non desinit substantia vel natura panis et vini. Et certe imago et similitudo corporis et sanguinis Christi in actione mysteriorum celebrantur.” Many Roman divines, through dogmatic prejudice, doubt the genuineness of this epistle. Comp. the Bibl. Max. tom. viii. pp. 699-700.

If anyone knows how to track down this reference online, I would greatly appreciate it. Anything closer to the original source would be even better.

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