Hugh of Saint-Victor On Sacred Scripture [English translation]

This is an English translation of a text from Hugh of Saint-Victor on sacred Scripture (early 12th century), courtesy of modern technology. I hope to get some suggested edits before publishing it in a final form.

Disclaimer: I have near-zero competency in Latin. This is a fairly short text I stumbled on in some of my research. As far as I can tell, it has not yet been translated into English.

A pdf of the original is here. The Latin text was taken from here. I primarily used ChatGPT to translate, checking it against Google Translate. I did make some minor edits. Some seemed to be warranted by context (e.g. where it seemed that an obvious meaning was inverted, which was sometimes apparent in comparing the translations, too). Other edits make the English a bit more readable, in a few cases (e.g. where redundant phrases appeared). I’m sure there are many mistakes, both computer and human. I welcome suggested edits, just send me a message here.

Without further ado, Hugh of Saint-Victor on Sacred Scripture and it’s writers:

Hugh of Saint-Victor: On Sacred Scripture
LatinEnglish

DE SCRIPTURIS ET SCRIPTORIBUS SACRIS PRAENOTATIUNCULAE

QUARUM HAEC SUNT CAPITULA.

CAP. I. - Quae Scripturae divinitatis nomine singulariter appellari debeant.

CAP. II. - Quod divina Scriptura ab aliis distinguitur in materia et modo tractandi.

CAP. III. - De triplici intelligentia sacrae Scripturae.

CAP. IV. - Non omnia in divino eloquio comperta, sed quaedam duntaxat ad hanc triplicem interpretationem esse adigenda.

CAP. V. - Quod sit necessaria interpretatio litteralis et historica.

CAP. VI. - De ordine, numero et auctoritate librorum sacrae Scripturae.

CAP. VII. - De sacrorum librorum scriptoribus.

CAP. VIII. - De Bibliothecae Veteris Testamenti reparatione.

CAP. IX. - De diversis Scripturae sacrae translationibus.

CAP. X. - De scriptoribus Novi Testamenti.

CAP. XI. - De Scripturis apocryphis.

CAP. XII. - De Bibliothecae interpretatione et variis librorum nominibus.

CAP. XIII. - De fructu divinae lectionis.

CAP. XIV. - Quem fructum sacra Scriptura ex aliis capiat; et quid aliis praestet; et de sex circumstantiis quibus res significatae discernuntur mystice; et primum de tribus quae sunt res, persona, numeri.

CAP. XV. - De numeris sacrae Scripturae novem modis significantibus.

CAP. XVI. - De tribus aliis circumstantiis, videlicet locis, temporibus, et gestis sacrae Scripturae.

CAP. XVII. - De materia sacrae Scripturae.

CAP. XVIII. - De difficultatibus sacrae Scripturae, praesertim in historiis.

ON THE SCRIPTURES AND SACRED WRITERS, PREFATORY REMARKS

OF WHICH THESE ARE THE CHAPTERS.

CHAPTER 1 - Which Scriptures ought to be called by the name of Divinity in a singular manner.

CHAPTER 2 - That the divine Scripture is distinguished from others in matter and mode of treatment.

CHAPTER 3 - On the threefold understanding of sacred Scripture.

CHAPTER 4 - Not everything in divine eloquence is clearly understood, but certain things are to be subjected only to this threefold interpretation.

CHAPTER 5 - That a literal and historical interpretation is necessary.

CHAPTER 6 - On the order, number, and authority of the books of sacred Scripture.

CHAPTER 7 - On the writers of sacred books.

CHAPTER 8 - On the restoration of the Library of the Old Testament.

CHAPTER 9 - On the various translations of sacred Scripture.

CHAPTER 10 - On the writers of the New Testament.

CHAPTER 11 - On the apocryphal Scriptures.

CHAPTER 12 - On the interpretation of the Library and the various names of books.

CHAPTER 13 - On the fruit of divine reading.

CHAPTER 14 - What fruit sacred Scripture derives from others and what it surpasses in others, and on the six circumstances by which things signified are discerned mystically; and first on the three which are things, person, numbers.

CHAPTER 15 - On the nine ways in which numbers signify sacred Scripture.

CHAPTER 16 - On the three other circumstances, namely, places, times, and deeds of sacred Scripture.

CHAPTER 17 - On the matter of sacred Scripture.

CHAPTER 18 - On the difficulties of sacred Scripture, especially in the histories.

CAP. I.-- Quae Scripturae, etc. ut jam praemissum est.

Lectorem divinarum Scripturarum primum erudire oportet, ut sciat quae Scripturae divinitatis nomine singulariter dignae sunt honorari. Nam quidam per Spiritum hujus mundi locuti multa scripserunt. Legimus carmina poetarum, in quibus cum delectatione nonnulla etiam utilitas est; sicut ait quidam:

 Aut prodesse volunt, aut delectare poetae.

HORATIUS, Art. poet., 333.

Logica, mathematica et physica, veritatem quamdam docent, sed ad illam veritatem non pertingunt in qua salus animae est, sine qua frustra est quidquid est. Ethicam quoque scripserunt gentilium philosophi, in qua quasi membra quaedam virtutum de corpore bonitatis truncata pinxerunt; sed membra virtutum viva esse non possunt sine corpore charitatis Dei. Omnes virtutes unum corpus faciunt; cujus corporis caput charitas est. Nec possunt vivere membra corporis nisi sensificentur a capite. Scripturae igitur illae, in quibus veritas sine contagione erroris non percipitur, neque ad veram Dei cognitionem sive dilectionem anima reparatur: nequaquam divinitatis nomine censeri dignae sunt. Sola autem illa Scriptura jure divina appellatur, quae per Spiritum Dei aspirata est, et per eos qui Spiritu Dei locuti sunt, administrata, hominem divinum facit, ad similitudinem Dei illum reformans, instruendo ad cognitionem, et exhortando ad dilectionem ipsius. In qua quidquid docetur, veritas; quidquid praecipitur, bonitas; quidquid promittitur felicitas est. Nam Deus veritas est sine fallacia, bonitas sine malitia, felicitas sine miseria. Si vis igitur divinam Scripturam ab aliis, quae hoc nomen non merentur, recta consideratione distinguere, materiam ipsam circa quam et in qua versatur ejus tractatio, diligenter considera, quoniam notitia rerum ad apertionem verborum facit. Facilius quippe intelliges quod dicitur; si bene notum fuerit, unde dicatur [1]

CHAPTER 1 - Concerning the Scriptures, etc., as has been stated.

The reader of divine Scriptures must first be educated in order to know which Scriptures are singularly worthy to be honored in the name of divinity. For certain individuals, speaking through the spirit of this world, have written many things. We read the poems of poets, in which there is not only delight, but also some utility, as someone said:

Either the poets want to benefit or delight.

HORACE, Art of Poetry, 333.

Logic, mathematics, and physics teach a certain truth, but they do not reach the truth in which the salvation of the soul lies, without which everything is in vain.  Gentile philosophers have also written on ethics, in which they painted certain members of virtue, cut off from the body of goodness. However, the members of virtue cannot exist without the body of the love of God. All virtues make up one body, of which love is the head. The members of the body cannot live unless they are sensitized by the head. Therefore, those scriptures, in which truth is not perceived without the contamination of error, and by which the soul is not repaired for true knowledge and love of God, are by no means considered worthy of the name of divinity. But only that Scripture is rightly called divine, which was inspired by the Spirit of God and administered by those who spoke by the Spirit of God. It makes a man  divine, transforming him into the likeness of God, instructing him in the knowledge of God, and exhorting him to love Him. In [these Scriptures], whatever is taught is truth, whatever is commanded is goodness, and what is promised is happiness. For God is truth without deception, goodness without malice, and happiness without misery. Therefore, if you desire to distinguish divine Scripture from others that do not deserve this name, by proper consideration, carefully examine the very subject matter around which and in which its treatment revolves, for knowledge of things brings clarity to words. For you will understand more easily what is said if it is well-known from where it is said [1].

CAP. II.-- Quod divina Scriptura ab aliis distinguitur in materia et modo tractandi.

Duo sunt opera Dei, quibus consummantur omnia quae facta sunt. Primum est opus conditionis, quo facta sunt quae non erant: secundum est opus restaurationis, quo reparata sunt quae perierant. Opus conditionis est creatio mundi cum omnibus clementis suis. Opus restaurationis est incarnatio Verbi cum omnibus sacramentis suis; sive quae ante incarnationem praecesserunt ab initio saeculi, sive quae post subsequentur usque ad finem mundi. Prima igitur opera ad servitutem facta sunt, ut homini, per justitiam stanti, subessent. Secunda vero ad salutem, ut hominem, per culpam jacentem, erigerent: idcirco majora haec. Propterea illa quasi modicum quid et exiguum virtutis divinae indicium, brevi tempore, id est sex tantum diebus, perfecta sunt. Haec vero, quasi excellentia ad comparationem priorum, et majorem virtutis effectum habentia, non nisi sex aetatibus consummari possunt. In his itaque materiam divinarum Scripturarum considera, ut et in illo de quo tractant, et illo modo quo tractant, hoc est in materia et modo ab aliis eas Scripturis distinguere possis. Aliarum enim Scripturarum omnium materia est in operibus conditionis, divinarum Scripturarum materia in operibus restaurationis constat. Haec igitur est prima discretio in eo de quo tractant. Item aliae scripturae si quam veritatem docent, non sine contagione erroris est, si quam bonitatem commendare videntur, vel malitiae mixta est, ut non sit pura, vel sine cognitione et dilectione Dei est, ut non sit perfecta. Propterea sicut id quod in eis divinum dici putatur, legentis animum per adjunctam falsitatem ad terrena praecipitat, ita quoque quod in Scriptura sacra terrenum esse videtur, per veram Creatoris agnitionem, quae in his omnibus commendatur, ad divina et coelestia cogitanda et amanda exaltat [2].

CHAPTER 2 - How divine Scripture is distinguished from others in terms of subject matter and mode of treatment.

There are two works of God, by which all things that have been made are perfected. The first is the work of creation, by which things that did not exist were made; the second is the work of restoration, by which things that had perished were repaired. The work of creation is the creation of the world with all its creatures. The work of restoration is the incarnation of the Word with all its sacraments, whether those that preceded the incarnation from the beginning of time or those that follow now, until the end of the world. Therefore, the first works were made for servitude, so that they might be subject to man, standing by righteousness. The second works were made for salvation, so that they might raise up man who lay fallen through sin. Hence, these are greater. Therefore, those works, being like a small indication of divine power, were completed in a short time, namely, in only six days. But these, being superior to the former and showing greater  power, can only be consummated in six ages. In these, therefore, consider the subject matter of divine Scriptures, so that you may distinguish them from others both in what they treat and in the manner in which they treat, that is, in subject matter and mode, different from other scriptures. For the subject matter of all other scriptures lies in the works of creation, while the subject matter of divine Scriptures lies in the works of restoration. Therefore, this is the first distinction in that which they treat. Furthermore, if other scriptures teach any truth, it is not without the contamination of error; if they seem to commend any goodness, it is mixed with malice, so that it is not pure; or it is without the knowledge and love of God, so that it is not perfect. Therefore, just as what is considered divine in them casts the mind of the reader down to earthly things through falsity, likewise, what appears to be earthly in sacred Scripture, through true recognition of the Creator, which is commended in all these, elevates the mind to think and love divine and heavenly things [2].

CAP. III.-- De triplici intelligentia sacrae Scripturae.

Secundum triplicem intelligentiam exponitur sacrum eloquium. Prima expositio est historica, in qua consideratur prima verborum significatio ad res ipsas de quibus agitur. Habet enim sacrum eloquium proprietatem quamdam ab aliis Scripturis differentem, quod in eo primum per verba quae recitantur, de rebus quibusdam agitur, quae rursum res vice verborum ad significationem aliarum rerum proponuntur. Historia dicitur a verbo graecoἰςορέω, historeo, quod est video et narro. Propterea quod apud veteres nulli licebat scribere res gestas, nisi a se visas, ne falsitas admisceretur veritati peccato scriptoris, plus, aut minus, aut aliter dicentis. Secundum hoc proprie et districte dicitur historia; sed solet largius accipi, ut dicatur historia sensus qui primo loco ex significatione verborum habetur ad res. Secunda expositio est allegorica. Est autem allegoria, cum per id quod ex littera significatum proponitur, aliud aliquid sive in praeterito sive in praesenti sive in futuro factum significatur. Dicitur allegoria quasi alieniloquium, quia aliud dicitur et aliud significatur, quae subdividitur in simplicem allegoriam et anagogen. Et est simplex allegoria, cum per visibile factum aliud invisibile factum significatur. Anagoge, id est sursum ductio, cum per visibile invisibile factum declaratur. Hujus triplicis intelligentiae unum ponatur exemplum. Erat vir in terra Hus, nomine Job, qui prius dives ad tantam devenit miseriam, quod sedens in sterquilinio etiam saniem corporis sui testa radebat. Sensus historiae patet. Veniamus ad allegoriam, ut per res a vocibus significatas, alias res significari consideremus et per factum aliud factum. Job itaque, qui interpretatur dolens, Christum significat, qui prius in divitiis gloriae Patris eidem coaequalis, condescendit nostrae miseriae, et sedit humiliatus in sterquilinio hujus mundi, omnibus nostris defectibus, praeter peccatum, communicans. Quid etiam per hoc factum, faciendum, id est dignum fieri significetur, inquiramus. Job quemlibet justum vel animam poenitentem potest significare, quae componit in memoria sua sterquilinium ex omnibus peccatis quae fecit, et non ad horam, sed perseveranter super hoc sedendo et meditando flere non cessat. Et haec facta ad litteram, quae repraesentant hujusmodi spiritualia, sacramenta dicuntur [3].

CHAPTER 3 - On the triple understanding of sacred Scripture.

The sacred eloquence is expounded according to a three-part understanding. The first exposition is historical, in which the primary meaning of the words is considered with respect to the things themselves that are being discussed. For sacred eloquence has a certain property that distinguishes it from other scriptures, namely, that in it, first through the words that are recited, certain things are discussed, which in turn present things instead of words to signify other things. History is derived from the Greek word ἰσορέω (historeo), which means to see and narrate. This is because among the ancients, it was not permitted to write historical events unless they were witnessed, so that falsehood would not be mixed with the truth due to the error of the writer, saying more, or less, or otherwise. According to this, history is properly and strictly called history; however, it is often taken in a broader sense, called the historical sense, which is primarily understood from the [direct] relationship of the words to the things they describe. The second exposition is allegorical. Allegory is when, by means of that which is said in the letter, something else is signified, either in the past, or in the present, or in the future. Allegory is called "alien speech" [or foreign language] because one thing is said and another is signified. It is subdivided into simple allegory and anagoge. Simple allegory is when something visible signifies an invisible fact. Anagoge, which means "leading upwards," is when something invisible is revealed through that which is visible. Let us give an example of this triple understanding. There was a man in the land of Uz named Job, who was previously rich but became so miserable that he sat in the dung heap and even scraped the pus from his own body with a potsherd. The sense of the history is clear. Let us now turn to the allegory, so that through things said by words, we may consider other things signified by them, and through one fact, another fact. Job, who is interpreted as "suffering," signifies Christ, who, being equal to the riches of the glory of the Father, condescended to our misery and humbly sat in the dung heap of this world, sharing in all our weaknesses except sin. Let us also inquire what is signified by this fact, that is, what is worthy to be done. Job can signify any righteous person or repentant soul who collects in his memory a dung heap consisting of all the sins he has committed and, not for a moment but persistently, continues to sit and meditate on it, weeping. And these acts, which represent such spiritual realities, are called sacraments [3].

CAP. IV.-- Non omnia in divino eloquio comperta, sed quaedam duntaxat ad dictam triplicem interpretationem esse adigenda.

Sane non omnia, quae in divino reperiuntur eloquio, ad hanc triplicem torquenda sunt interpretationem, ut singula historiam, allegoriam et tropologiam simul continere credantur. Quod et si in multis congrue assignari possit; ubique tamen observare, aut difficile est, aut impossibile. Sicut enim in cithara et hujusmodi organis musicis, non quidem omnia quae tanguntur canorum aliquid resonant, sed tantum chordae, caetera tamen in toto citharae corpore ideo facta sunt ut esset ubi connecterentur et quo tenderentur illa quae ad cantilenae suavitatem modulaturus est artifex; ita in divinis eloquiis quaedam posita sunt, quae tantum spiritualiter intelligi volunt; quaedam vero morum gravitati deserviunt; quaedam etiam secundum simplicem historiae sensum dicta sunt: nonnulla vero, quae secundum historiam et allegoriam et tropologiam convenienter exponi possunt [4].

CHAPTER 4 - Not everything in divine speech is discovered, but only certain things must be subjected to the said triple interpretation.

Indeed, not everything found in divine speech should be forced into this triple interpretation, as if each contains history, allegory, and tropology all at once. Although they can be appropriately applied in many cases, it is either difficult or impossible to observe [them] universally. Just as in a lyre and other musical instruments, not everything that is touched produces sound, but only the strings, while the rest of the instrument's body is designed to provide a place for connection and a direction for the strings that the artist uses to modulate the sweetness of the melody. Similarly, in divine speech, certain things are intended solely for spiritual understanding, some serve the gravity of moral conduct, and some are spoken in the simple sense of history. However, some statements can be appropriately explained according to history, allegory, and tropology [4].

CAP. V.-- Quod sit necessaria interpretatio litteralis et historica [5].

Cum igitur mystica intelligentia non nisi ex iis quae primo loco littera proponit colligatur; miror qua fronte quidam allegoriarum se doctores jactitant, qui ipsam adhuc primam litterae significationem ignorant. Nos inquiunt, Scripturam legimus, sed non legimus litteram. Non curamus de littera; sed allegoriam docemus. Quomodo ergo Scripturam legitis, et litteram non legitis? Si enim littera tollitur, Scriptura quid est? Nos, inquiunt, litteram legimus, sed non secundum litteram. Allegoriam enim legimus, et exponimus litteram non secundum litteram, sed secundum allegoriam. Quid ergo est litteram exponere, nisi id quod significat littera demonstrare? Sed littera, inquiunt, aliud significat secundum historiam, aliud secundum allegoriam. Leo quippe secundum historiam bestiam significat, secundum allegoriam Christum significat: ergo vox ista, leo, Christum significat. Ego igitur interrogo te qui hoc probas quare leo Christum significet? Respondes fortassis, qualiter responderi solet in ejusmodi, pro convenentia similitudinis ad significationem propositae: quia leo apertis oculis dormit, vel aliud tale aliquid: igitur leo Christum significat, quia apertis oculis dormit. Sic enim dixisti tu, quod leo, dictio ista, Christum significat, quia apertis oculis dormit. Aut igitur sententiam tolle quam proposuisti, aut muta causam quam subjunxisti. Aut enim falsa est sententia, qua dixisti quod dictio ista, leo, Christum significat, aut inconveniens causa quam subjunxisti, quod ideo leo Christum significat, quia apertis oculis dormit. Non enim dictio apertis oculis dormit, sed animal ipsum quod dictio significat. Intellige igitur quod cum leo Christum significare dicit, non nomen animalis, sed animal ipsum significatur. Hoc enim est quod, ut dicitur, apertis oculis dormit, secundum quod aliqua similitudine illum figurat, qui in somno mortis susceptae dormivit humanitate, sed oculos habuit apertos vigilans divinitate. Noli itaque de intelligentia Scripturarum gloriari, quandiu litteram ignoras. Litteram autem ignorare est ignorare quid littera significet, et quid significetur a littera. Nam quod significatur a primo, tertium significat. Cum igitur res illae quas littera significat, spiritualis intelligentiae signa sint, quomodo signa tibi esse possunt, quae necdum tibi significata sunt? Noli ergo saltum facere, ne in praecipitium incidas. Ille rectissime incedit, qui incedit ordinate. Primum igitur illarum rerum quas tibi sacrum eloquium proponit, ad mysticam significationem stude legendo comparare notitiam, ut ex iis specie cognitis, postmodum meditando colligas quod vel ad fidei aedificationem, vel ad instructionem bonorum morum per similitudinem adducas. Sed non omnia, inquiunt, secundum litteram legi possunt, vel convenienter intelligi. Cum enim propheta dicat fluvium igneum de sub throno Dei egredientem se vidisse, et quaedam pennata et oculata animalia in circuitu volantia et clamantia contestetur (Dan. VII; Ezech. I) , et multa in hunc modum similia, non dubium est quin ex iis, quae sacrum eloquium narrat, quaedam secundum litteram convenienter accipiantur, quaedam vero per figuram tantum dicta intelligantur. Sic igitur haec dicunt, quasi nos existimemus omnia quae per litteram dicuntur, sic omnino accipienda, nec aliud intelligendum ex iis quae dicuntur; quod quid est per litteram non dicitur, sed per id quod littera dicit, significatur. Nam in eo etiam quod figurative dictum accipitur, littera suam significationem habere non negatur, quia cum id quod dicitur, non sic, ut dicitur, intelligendum esse asserimus, idipsum aliquo modo dictum esse affirmamus. Dicitur igitur aliquid et significatur a littera, tunc etiam quando id quod dicitur, nonita intelligitur ut dicitur, sed aliud quod per id dictum significatur. Sic igitur omnino aliquid dicitur et significatur a littera, et intelligendum est illud primum quod significatur a littera, ut quid per illud significetur, postea intelligatur. Ad hunc modum lectorem admonitum esse volumus, ne forte haec prima doctrinae rudimenta despiciat. Neque contemnendam putet harum rerum notitiam, quas nobis sacra Scriptura per primam litterae significationem proponit, quia ipsae sunt quas Spiritus sanctus carnalibus sensibus, et nonnisi per visibilia invisibilia capere valentibus, quasi quaedam simulacra mysticorum intellectuum depinxit, et per similitudines propositas, eorum quae spiritualiter intelligenda sunt, claram demonstrationem figuravit. Quod si, ut isti dicunt, a littera statim ad id quod spiritualiter intelligendum est, transiliendum foret, frustra a Spiritu sancto figurae et similitudines rerum quibus animus ad spiritualia erudiretur, in sacro eloquio interpositae fuissent. Teste namque Apostolo, quod carnale est, prius est, deinde quod spirituale >(I Cor. XV). Et ipsa Dei sapientia, nisi prius corporaliter cognita fuisset, nunquam lippientis mentis acies ad illam spiritualiter contemplandam illuminari potuisset. Noli igitur in verbo Dei despicere humilitatem, quia per humilitatem, illuminaris ad divinitatem. Quasi lutum tibi videtur totum hoc quod verbum Dei foris habet, et ideo forte pedibus conculcas, quia lutum est, et contemnis quod corporaliter et visibiliter gestum littera narrat. Sed audi: luto isto quod pedibus tuis conculcatur, caeci oculus ad videndum illuminatur (Joan. IX) Lege ergo Scripturam, et disce primum diligenter quae corporaliter narrat. Si enim formam horum secundum seriem narrationis propositae studiose animo impresseris, quasi ex favo quodam postmodum meditando spiritualis intelligentiae dulcedinem fuges.

CHAPTER 5 - The necessity of a literal and historical interpretation [5].

Since the mystical understanding can only be deduced from what the letter presents in the first place, I wonder how certain allegorists dare to boast as doctors when they are ignorant of the very first meaning of the letter. They say, "We read the Scripture, but we do not read them literally. We do not care about the letter; we teach the allegory." So how do you read the Scripture if you do not read the letter? For if the letter is removed, what is Scripture? They reply, "We read the letter, but not according to the letter. We read and interpret the letter not according to the letter, but according to allegory." So what does it mean to interpret the letter if not to demonstrate what the letter means? But they say, "The letter signifies one thing according to history and another thing according to allegory. For example, according to history, a lion signifies a beast, but according to allegory, it signifies Christ. Therefore, this word 'lion' signifies Christ." So I ask you, who can prove this? Why does the lion signify Christ? Perhaps you respond in the manner commonly done in such cases, based on the congruity of the similitude to the proposed meaning: because a lion sleeps with its eyes open or something similar. Thus, you have said that the word 'lion' signifies Christ because a lion sleeps with its eyes open. Therefore, either withdraw the statement you made or change your reasoning. For either the statement that the word 'lion' signifies Christ is false, or your conclusion, that a lion signifies Christ because it sleeps with its eyes open, is inappropriate. For it is not the word that sleeps with its eyes open, but the animal itself that the word signifies. Understand, therefore, that when it is said that a lion signifies Christ, it does not mean the name of the animal, but the animal itself is signified. For it is said that a lion sleeps with its eyes open in the sense that it figuratively represents the one who, in the sleep of death assumed by humanity, remained awake with the vigilance of divinity. Therefore, do not boast about understanding the Scriptures as long as you are ignorant of the letter. To be ignorant of the letter is to be ignorant of what the letter signifies and what is signified by the letter. For what is signified by the first signifies the third. Since those things that the letter signifies are signs of spiritual understanding, how can they be signs to you when they have not been shown to you? Therefore, do not make a leap, lest you fall into a precipice. He walks most rightly who walks orderly. Therefore, with regard to those things that sacred speech presents to you, strive to compare the knowledge gained from reading to the mystical meaning so that, from those things known in appearance, you may later gather through meditation what you may bring forth either for the edification of faith or for the instruction of good conduct by way of similitude. But not everything they say can be properly read or understood according to the letter. For when the prophet says he saw a river of fire coming forth from beneath the throne of God, and certain winged and eyed animals flying around and crying out (Dan. VII; Ezech. I), and many similar things in this manner, there is no doubt that some things in sacred speech can be properly understood according to the letter, while others are understood only figuratively. Thus, they say these things as if we were to think that everything that is said according to the letter must be understood in that way, and nothing else should be understood from what is said; for what is not expressed by the letter is signified by what the letter says. For even when something is understood figuratively, it is not denied that the letter has its own meaning, because when we assert that what is said is not to be understood as it is said, we affirm that it is said in some manner. Therefore, something is said and signified by the letter even when what is said is not understood as it is said, but something else is signified by it. Thus, something is entirely said and signified by the letter, and what is first signified by the letter must be understood so that it can be understood afterwards. We want to remind the reader of this method so that he does not despise these first rudiments of doctrine. Nor should he consider the knowledge of these things, which sacred Scripture presents to us through the first meaning of the letter, as contemptible. For they are the very things that the Holy Spirit, in His depicting mystical knowledge, has painted as it were certain images of spiritual concepts, and through similitudes, has made a clear demonstration of those things that are to be understood spiritually. But if, as some say, one were to leap immediately from the letter to that which is to be understood spiritually, then figures and similitudes would be understood in vain. Things by which the mind is to be educated in spiritual matters have been inserted into sacred speech by the Holy Spirit. For the Apostle testifies that what is carnal comes first, then what is spiritual (I Cor. XV). And even the wisdom of God itself, unless it had been known first in a bodily manner, could never have illuminated the eyes of the feeble mind to contemplate it spiritually. Therefore, do not despise the humility in the Word of God, for through humility you are enlightened to divinity. As if this whole thing that the Word of God contains seems to you like clay and you trample it underfoot and you disdain what the letter says as something bodily and visible. But listen: by that clay which is trampled under your feet, the blind eye is illuminated to see (John IX). Therefore, read the Scripture and first diligently learn what it narrates in a bodily manner. For if you meditate and impress the form of these things according to the order they are narrated, deeply into your mind, you will afterwards escape, as it were, with the sweetness of spiritual understanding.

CAP. VI.-- De ordine, numero et auctoritate librorum sacrae Scripturae.

Omnis divina Scriptura in duobus Testamentis continetur [6], Veteri videlicet et Novo. Utrumque Testamentum tribus ordinibus distinguitur: Vetus Testamentum continet legem, prophetas, agiographos. Novum autem Evangelium, apostolos, patres. Primus ordo Veteris Testamenti, id est lex, quam Hebraei thorath nominant, pentateuchon habet, id est quinque libros Moysi. In hoc ordine primus est Beresith, qui est Genesis. Secundus Hellesmoth, qui est Exodus. Tertius Vagethra, qui est Leviticus. Quartus Vagedaber, qui est Numeri. Quintus Elleaddaberim, qui est Deuteronomius. Secundus ordo est prophetarum, hic continet octo volumina. Primum est Bennum, id est filius Nun, qui et Josue et Jesus, et Jesus Nave nuncupatur. Secundum est Sothim, qui est liber Judicum. Tertium est Samuel, qui est primus et secundus Regum. Quartum Malachim, qui est tertius et quartus Regum. Quintum est Esaias. Sextum Jeremias, Septimum Ezechiel. Octavum Thereasra qui est duodecim prophetarum. Deinde tertius ordo novem habet libros. Primus est Job. Secundus David. Tertius Masloth, quod graece Parabolae, latine Proverbia sonat, videlicet Salomonis. Quartus Coeleth, qui est Ecclesiastes. Quintus Sirasirim, id est Cantica canticorum. Sextus Daniel. Septimus Dabreiamin, qui est Paralipomenon. Octavus Esdras. Nonus Esther. Omnes ergo fiunt numero viginti duo. Sunt praeterea alii quidam libri, ut Sapientia Salomonis, liber Jesu filii Sirach, et liber Judith, et Tobias, et libri Machabaeorum, qui leguntur quidem, sed non scribuntur in canone. His viginti duobus libris Veteris Testamenti, octo libri Novi Testamenti junguntur. In primo ordine Novi Testamenti sunt quatuor Evangelia: Matthaei, Marci, Lucae et Joannis. In secundo similiter sunt quatuor: Actus videlicet apostolorum, Epistolae Pauli numero quatuordecim sub uno volumine contextae. Canonicae Epistolae, Apocalypsis. In tertio ordine primum locum habent decretalia, quos canonicos, id est regulares appellamus. Deinde sanctorum Patrum scripta, id est, Hieronymi, Augustini, Ambrosii, Gregorii, Isidori, Origenis, Bedae et aliorum doctorum, quae infinita sunt. Haec tamen scripta Patrum in textu divinarum Scripturarum non computantur, quemadmodum in Veteri Testamento, ut diximus, quidam libri sunt qui non scribuntur in canone, et tamen leguntur, ut Sapientia Salomonis et caeteri. Textus igitur divinarum Scripturarum, quasi totum corpus principaliter triginta libris continetur. Horum viginti duo in Veteri, octo vero in Novo Testamento (sicut supra monstratum est) comprehenduntur. Caetera vero scripta quasi adjuncta sunt, et ex his praecedentibus manantia. In his autem ordinibus, maxime utriusque Testamenti, apparet convenientia: quia sicut post legem prophetae, et post prophetas agiographi, ita post Evangelium apostoli, et post apostolos doctores ordine successerunt. Et mira quadam divinae dispensationis ratione actum est, ut, cum in singulis Scripturis plena et perfecta veritas consistat, nulla tamen superflua sit [7].

CHAPTER 6 - On the Order, Number, and Authority of the Books of Sacred Scripture.

All divine Scripture is contained in two Testaments [6], namely the Old and the New. Each Testament is divided into three orders: the Old Testament contains the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. The New Testament consists of the Gospels, the Epistles of the Apostles, and the writings of the Fathers. The first order of the Old Testament, namely the Law, which the Hebrews call the Torah, consists of five books of Moses, known as the Pentateuch. In this order, the first is Beresith, which is Genesis. The second is Hellesmoth, which is Exodus. The third is Vagethra, which is Leviticus. The fourth is Vagedaber, which is Numbers. The fifth is Elleaddaberim, which is Deuteronomy. The second order is that of the Prophets, which contains eight volumes. The first is Bennum, which means the son of Nun, who is called Joshua, Jesus, and Jesus Nave. The second is Sothim, which is the Book of Judges. The third is Samuel, which is the first and second Books of Kings. The fourth is Malachim, which is the third and fourth Books of Kings. The fifth is Esaias. The sixth is Jeremias. The seventh is Ezechiel. The eighth is Thereasra, which is the Twelve Prophets. Then the third order has nine books. The first is Job. The second is David. The third is Masloth, which in Greek means Parables, and in Latin is called Proverbs, namely the Proverbs of Solomon. The fourth is Coeleth, which is Ecclesiastes. The fifth is Sirasirim, which is the Song of Songs. The sixth is Daniel. The seventh is Dabreiamin, which is the Chronicles. The eighth is Esdras. The ninth is Esther. Therefore, the total number becomes twenty-two. There are also some other books, such as the Wisdom of Solomon, the book of Jesus the son of Sirach, the book of Judith, the book of Tobias, and the books of the Maccabees, which are indeed read but are not included in the canon. These twenty-two books of the Old Testament are joined by eight books of the New Testament. In the first order of the New Testament, there are four Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. In the second order, there are likewise four: namely, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of Paul, which are fourteen in number and are contained in one volume, the Catholic Epistles, and the Apocalypse. In the third order, the first place is occupied by the decrees, which we call canonical or regular. Then there are the writings of the holy Fathers, namely, Jerome, Augustine, Ambrose, Gregory, Isidore, Origen, Bede, and other doctors, which are countless. However, these writings of the Fathers are not included in the text of the divine Scriptures, just as, as we have said, there are certain books in the Old Testament that are not written in the canon and yet are read, such as the Wisdom of Solomon and others. Therefore, the text of the divine Scriptures, like a whole body, is primarily contained in thirty books. Of these, twenty-two are in the Old Testament, and eight are in the New Testament (as shown above). The rest of the writings are like additions and flow from these preceding ones. In these orders, especially in each Testament, there appears a harmonious arrangement: just as after the Law come the Prophets, and after the Prophets come the Writings, so after the Gospels come the Apostles, and after the Apostles come the Teachers in proper order. And it was done by a certain marvelous divine arrangement that, although each Scripture contains complete and perfect truth, nothing is superfluous [7].

CAP. VII.-- De sacrorum librorum scriptoribus [8].

Quinque libros legis Moyses scripsit. Libri Josue idem Josue cujus nomine inscribitur, auctor fuisse creditur. Librum Judicum a Samuele editum fuisse credunt. Primam partem libri Samuelis ipse Samuel scripsit: sequentia vero usque ad calcem, David. Malachim Jeremias primum in volumen unum collegit; nam antea sparsus erat per singulorum regum historias. Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel, singuli suos libros fecerunt, qui inscripti sunt nominibus eorum. Liber etiam duodecim prophetarum auctorum suorum nominibus praenotatur, quorum nomina sunt. Osee, Joel, Amos, Abdias, Jonas, Micheas, Nahum, Habacuc, Sophonias, Aggeus, Zacharias et Malachias; qui propterea minores dicuntur, quia sermones eorum breves sunt, unde et uno volumine comprehenduntur. Isaias autem et Jeremias et Ezechiel et Daniel, hi quatuor majores sunt singulis suis voluminibus distincti. Librum Job, alii Moysen, alii unum ex prophetis, nonnulli ipsum Job scripsisse credunt. Librum psalmorum David edidit. Esdras autem postea psalmos ita ut nunc sunt ordinavit, et titulos addidit. Parabolas autem et Ecclesiastem, et Cantica canticorum Salomon composuit. Daniel sui libri auctor fuit. Liber Esdras auctoris sui titulo praenotatur, in cujus tectu ejusdem Esdrae Neemiaeque sermones pariter continentur. Librum Esther Esdras creditur conscripsisse. Liber Sapientiae apud Hebraeos nusquam est: unde et ipse titulus graecam magis eloquentiam redolet. Hunc quidam Judaei Philonis esse affirmant. Librum Ecclesiasticum certissime filius Sirach Hierosolymita nepos Jesu sacerdotis magni, cujus meminit Zacharias, composuit. Hic apud Hebraeos reperitur: sed inter apocryphos habetur. Judith vero et Tobias, et libri Machabaeorum, quorum ut testatur Hieronymus, secundus liber magis graecus esse probatur, quibus auctoribus scripti sunt minime constat.

CHAPTER 7 - On the Writers of the Sacred Books [8].

Moses wrote the five books of the Law. The book of Joshua is believed to have been written by the same Joshua, whose name it bears. They believe that the book of Judges was edited by Samuel. Samuel himself wrote the first part of the book, while the following parts were written by David. Jeremiah compiled the book of Kings into one volume; previously, it was scattered throughout the histories of individual kings. Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel each wrote their own books, which are inscribed with their names. The book of the Twelve Prophets is also designated by the names of its authors, whose names are Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. They are called the Minor Prophets because their speeches are brief, hence they are contained in one volume. However, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel are the four Major Prophets, each having their own separate volumes. Some believe that the book of Job was written by Moses, others by one of the prophets, while some attribute it to Job himself. David compiled the book of Psalms. Ezra later arranged the psalms in their current order and added titles. Solomon composed the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs. Daniel was the author of his book. The book of Ezra is designated by the title of its author, and it contains the speeches of Ezra and Nehemiah. The book of Esther is believed to have been written by Ezra. The book of Wisdom is nowhere to be found among the Hebrews; hence its title reflects more of a Greek eloquence. Some Jewish scholars claim it to be the work of Philo. The book of Sirach, also known as Ecclesiasticus, was certainly composed by Jesus, the son of Sirach, a Jerusalemite and the grandson of the high priest mentioned by Zacharias. It is found among the Hebrews but is considered apocryphal. Judith, Tobias, and the books of Maccabees, as Jerome attests, prove to be more Greek in nature in the second book, although the actual authors of these books are not certain.

CAP. VIII.-- De bibliothecae Veteris Testamenti reparatione.

Bibliothecam Veteris Testamenti Esdras scriba, post incensam legem a Chaldaeis, dum Judaei ingressi sunt Jerusalem divino afflatus spiritu, reparavit [9]; cunctaque legis ac prophetarum volumina, quae fuerant a gentilibus corrupta, correxit; totumque Vetus Testamentum in viginti duos libros constituit, ut tot libri essent in lege, quot habebantur et litterae.

CHAPTER 8 - On the Restoration of the Library of the Old Testament.

After the law was burned by the Chaldeans, Ezra the scribe, inspired by the divine breath, repaired the library of the Old Testament when the Jews entered Jerusalem [9]. He corrected all the volumes of the Law and the Prophets that had been corrupted by the Gentiles, and he established the entire Old Testament into twenty-two books, so that there would be as many books in the law as there were letters.

CAP. IX.-- De diversis Scripturae sacrae translationibus.

Scripturam Veteris Testamenti prius in hebraica lingua editam constat [10]. Postea Ptolomaeus qui Philadelphus cognominatus est, et secundus post Alexandrum Magnum regem Aegypti obtinuit, per septuaginta interpretes, quos ab Eleazaro pontifice acceperat, bibliothecam Veteris Testamenti in graecam linguam ex hebraea interpretari fecit. Et, ut aiunt quidam, ne posset decipi ab eis falsitate translationis, divisit eos, ut singuli in singulis cellis separati essent. Illi vero ita omnia per Spiritum sanctum interpretati sunt, ut nihil in unius codice inventum esset, quod in alterius similiter non inveniretur. Propter quod una est eorum interpretatio. Sed Hieronymus [11] dicit, huic rei non esse adhibendam fidem. Post ascensionem vero Domini, praedicantibus apostolis Evangelium, haec eadem translatio in gentibus reperta est, et secundum hanc ab Ecclesiis Christi primum sacrae Scripturae legi coeperunt. Postea vero, quia eidem translationi quaedam deesse probata sunt, quae in hebraica veritate tam ipsius Christi quam apostolorum praedicantium auctoritas contineri promulgaverat, conati sunt et alii sacram Scripturam de hebraica lingua in graecum transferre sermonem. Secundam igitur et tertiam et quartam translationem fecerunt Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion. Quorum primus videlicet Aquila, Judaeus; Symmachus vero et Theodotion Hebionitae haeretici fuerunt. Obtinuit tamen usus, ut post Septuaginta interpretes Ecclesiae graecorum eorum reciperent exemplaria et legerent. Post haec accessit quinta, quae Vulgaris dicitur; quae quodam tempore in Jericho reperta est. Sed quis auctor ejus fuerit, usque hodie ignoratur. Sextam et septimam Origenes fecit, cujus codices Eusebius et Pamphilus vulgaverunt. Octavo loco Hieronymus accessit, non jam de hebraeo in graecum sicut priores, sed de hebraeo in latinum transferens sermonem. Cujus translatio, quia hebraicae veritati concordare magis probata est, idcirco Ecclesia Christi per universam latinitatem prae caeteris omnibus translationibus, quas vitiosa interpretatio, sive prima de hebraeo in graecum, sive secunda de graeco in latinum facta, corruperat, hanc solam legendam et in auctoritate habendam constituit. Usu autem pravo [primo] invalescente, qui nonnunquam solita magis quam vera appetit, factum est, ut diversas diversis sequentibus translationes ita tandem omnia confusa sint, ut pene nunc cui tribuendum sit, ignoretur.

CHAPTER 9 - On the Various Translations of the Holy Scriptures.

It is known that the Old Testament Scriptures were first written in the Hebrew language [10]. Later, Ptolemy, also known as Philadelphus, who became the second ruler of Egypt after Alexander the Great, had the library of the Old Testament translated from Hebrew into Greek by seventy interpreters whom he had received from the high priest Eleazar. Some say that to prevent any deception due to translation errors, he divided them so that each of them would work separately in individual cells. However, they all interpreted everything through the Holy Spirit in such a way that nothing found in one manuscript was not also found in another. That is why their translation is considered as one. But Jerome [11] says that this account should not be trusted.

After the ascension of the Lord, when the apostles were preaching the Gospel, this same translation was discovered among the Gentiles, and it was through this translation that the sacred Scriptures began to be read by the churches of Christ. However, because certain deficiencies were found in this translation that the authority of Christ Himself and the preaching of the apostles contained in the Hebrew truth had made known, others attempted to translate the sacred Scriptures from the Hebrew language into the Greek language. Thus, Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion made the second, third, and fourth translations, respectively. Of these, Aquila was a Jew, while Symmachus and Theodotion were Hebrew heretics called Ebionites. Nevertheless, it became customary for the Greek churches to receive their copies and read them after the Septuagint translators.

Afterward, the fifth, common translation appeared, which was discovered in Jericho at a certain time. However, until today, its author remains unknown. Origen made the sixth and seventh translations, and their manuscripts were published by Eusebius and Pamphilus. In the eighth place, Jerome made his translation, not from Hebrew into Greek like the previous ones, but from Hebrew into Latin. Since his translation was found to be more faithful to the Hebrew truth, the Church of Christ established that it should be read and held in authority above all other translations, which had been corrupted either by faulty interpretation in the first translation from Hebrew into Greek or in the second translation from Greek into Latin. As the influence of the early corrupt usage grew, driven by a desire for familiarity rather than accuracy, it happened that the various translations became so confused that it is now almost impossible to determine which one should be attributed to each.

CAP. X.-- De scriptoribus Novi Testamenti.

Plures Evangelia scripserunt, sed quidam sine Spiritu sancto magis conati sunt ordinare narrationem, quam historiae texere veritatem. Unde sancti Patres, per Spiritum sanctum docti, quatuor tantum in auctoritatem receperunt Evangelia, id est, Matthaei, Marci, Lucae, Joannis, ad similitudinem quatuor fluminum paradisi, et quatuor vectium arcae, et quatuor animalium in Ezechiele (Ezeeh. I). Primus Matthaeus Evangelium suum scripsit hebraice. Secundus Marcus, graece scripsit. Tertius Lucas, inter omnes Evangelistas graeci sermonis eruditissimus, Evangelium suum scripsit, Theophilo archiepiscopo, ad quem etiam Actus apostolorum scripsit. Quartus et ultimus Joannes Evangelium suum scripsit. Paulus quatuordecim scripsit epistolas. Canonicae epistolae septem sunt, una Jacobi: duae Petri, tres Joannis, una Judae. Apocalypsim scripsit Joannes apostolus in Pathmo insula [12].

CHAPTER 10 - On the Writers of the New Testament.

Many wrote Gospels, but some attempted more to organize the narrative than to convey the truth of history without the Holy Spirit. Therefore, the holy Fathers, taught by the Holy Spirit, only accepted four Gospels as authoritative, namely, those of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, in similarity to the four rivers of Paradise, the four corners of the Ark, and the four living creatures in Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1).

The first, Matthew, wrote his Gospel in Hebrew. The second, Mark, wrote in Greek. The third, Luke, who was the most learned in Greek among all the Evangelists, wrote his Gospel to Theophilus, who was also the recipient of the Acts of the Apostles. The fourth and last, John, wrote his Gospel. Paul wrote fourteen letters. There are seven canonical letters: one of James, two of Peter, three of John, and one of Jude. The Apostle John wrote the Revelation on the island of Patmos [12].

CAP. XI.-- De scriptis apocryphis.

Hi sunt scriptores sacrorum librorum, qui per Spiritum sanctum loquentes, ad eruditionem nostram praecepta vivendi regulamque conscripserunt. Praeter haec, alia volumina apocrypha nominantur; apocrypha autem dicta, id est abscondita et secreta, quia in dubium veniunt. Est enim eorum origo occulta, nec patet sanctis Patribus a quibus edita sint. In quibus etsi aliqua veritas, tamen, propter multa falsa, nulla est in eis canonica auctoritas: quod recte non judicatur esse eorum quibus ascribuntur: nam multa sub nominibus prophetarum, et recentiora sub nominibus apostolorum ab haereticis proferuntur; quae omnia sub nomine apocryphorum a divina auctoritate per examinationem remota sunt [13].

CHAPTER 11 - On the Apocryphal Writings.

These are the writers of the sacred books who, speaking through the Holy Spirit, have written precepts of life and a rule for our instruction. Besides these, other volumes are called apocryphal; they are called apocryphal because they are doubtful and secret. For their origin is hidden, and it is not known to the holy Fathers by whom they were published. Although some truth may be found in them, due to their many falsehoods, they have no canonical authority. It is rightly judged that they do not belong to those to whom they are ascribed. For many things are produced under the names of the prophets and, more recently, under the names of the apostles by heretics, all of which have been removed from divine authority through examination under the name of apocryphal [13].

CAP. XII.-- De bibliothecae interpretatione, et variis librorum nominibus [14].

Bibliotheca a graeco nomen accepit, eo quod ibi libri recondantur. Nam biblion librorum, repositio interpretatur. Codex multorum librorum est, liber unius voluminis, et dictus codex per translationem a caudicibus arborum sive vitium, quasi caudex quod in se multitudinem librorum quasi ramorum contineat. Volumen dicitur a volvendo. Liber est interior cortex arboris, in quo antiqui, ante usum membranae, solebant scribere, unde scriptores librarios vocabant, inde dictus est liber volumen. Tractatus est unius rei multiplex expositio. Testamentum dicitur sacra Scriptura, humana consuetudine dante occasionem: antiquitus enim qui carebant liberis adoptabant sibi filios, et cum constituebant illos haeredes, vocabant testes et scribebant chirographum, non erat tamen ita ratum quin posset mutari, nisi mortuo testatore. Similiter Deus unum solum Filium habens ex natura, multos voluit adoptare ex gratia. Et primitus unum elegit Abraham; cui praecepit exire de cognatione sua, et promisit terram Palaestinam; nec tamen ipse legitur inde aliquid possedisse. Posthac filiis Israel eductis de Aegypto, eamdem terram Palaestinam repromisit, et ne dubitarent, fecit Testamentum in certitudinem promissae haereditatis scilicet legem quae per Moysen data est. Sed quia Deus non poterat mori, et testamentum morte testatoris confirmandum erat, interfectus est pro eo agnus mysticus, cujus sanguine respersus est liber et totus populus, in confirmationem promissae haereditatis. Eodem modo Dominus Jesus Christus vocans ad aeternam haereditatem, non unum tantum hominem, sed omnes gentes, fecit testamentum, Evangelium videlicet. In cujus confirmationem non agnus ille antiquus occiditur; sed ipse (quia homo erat et mori potuit) mortem subiit. Et sicut Deus ad Vetus Testamentum dandum vocaverat testes, Aaron scilicet et Mariam sororem ejus et Ur; ita Christus, qui majora promisit, plures vocavit testes, apostolos, videlicet et martyres. Vetus dicitur Testamentum primum, vel quia prius datum, vel quia de rebus veterascentibus est institutum. Novum dicitur secundum, quia de immutabilibus et semper novis loquitur. Propheta tripliciter dicitur, officio, gratia, missione. Officio, sicut quando eligebatur aliquis qui imminente bello de dubiis consuleret Dominum, sive per assumptum ephot; sive alio quolibet modo. Gratia, sicut ille cui Dominus per internam inspirationem dabat notitiam rerum, quam nec natura nec disciplina habere poterat sed sola gratia, sicut David et Daniel et Job. Missione, sicut ille quem mittebat Dominus ad praedicandum ea quae ei inspiraverat, ut Jonas. Sed tamen sicut in istis diebus non dicuntur episcopi, nisi qui officii dignitatem et potestatem habent, licet meritum habeant et virtutem hujus nominis abundantius illis qui episcopi sunt, ita nec prophetae dicebantur, nisi qui officio aut missione prophetae essent. Unde David, Job, Daniel, licet contineant prophetias in libris suis: inter agiographos tamen positi sunt; et e contrario Josue, liber Judicum et libri Samuelis, et Regum, qui solam historiam texuerunt vel texere videntur, inter Prophetas connumerantur.

Quaeritur etiam, cur novem tantum dicantur agiographi, id est sancti scriptores, cum hoc nomen conveniat omnibus sacrae Scripturae auctoribus? Ad quod respondendum, quia quod nullam habet specialem proprietatem qua distinguatur a caeteris, commune nomen quasi proprium obtinet, non ex praerogativa, sed potius quasi ex quadam indignitate respectu aliorum; sicut in novem ordinibus angelorum minimus simpliciter obtinet commune nomen, et quaerenti quis sit, respondetur: angelus est, cum etiam principatus et potestates angeli sint. Apocryphus, id est dubius et absconditus liber duobus modis dicitur: vel quia auctor ejus incertus, vel quia communi assensu fidelis synagogae vel ecclesiae non est receptus et confirmatus, etsi etiam nihil in eo [pravi, ED.] reperiatur. Unde et liber Job apocryphus est, quia dubii auctoris; in canone tamen confirmatus est auctoritate fidelis synagogae. Item Ecclesiasticus, liber Sapientiae Salomonis et duo libri Machabaeorum, Tobias, Judith, et liber Jesu filii Sirach apocryphi sunt; leguntur tamen et ad Vetus Testamentum pertinent, sed non sunt confirmati in canone.

CHAPTER 12 - On the Interpretation of the Library and Various Names of Books [14].

The library derived its name from Greek, because books are kept there. For biblion means book, and theca means storage or repository. A codex is a collection of many books, a book of a single volume, and called codex by translation from the trunks of trees or vines, as if a codex containing a multitude of books like branches. Volumen means "that which is rolled up." Liber is the inner bark of a tree, on which the ancients used to write before the use of parchment, hence they were called scribes of books, and from there the book is called a volume. Tractatus means the multifaceted exposition of a single matter. Testamentum is called sacred Scripture, due to human custom: in ancient times, those who lacked children would adopt sons for themselves, and when they appointed them as heirs, they called witnesses and wrote a legal document; however, it was not valid unless the testator died. Similarly, God, having only one Son by nature, desired to adopt many through grace. And initially, He chose Abraham; to whom He commanded to leave his kindred and promised the land of Palestine; yet he himself is not recorded to have possessed anything from there. Afterward, when the children of Israel were brought out of Egypt, He promised them the same land of Palestine, and to remove any doubt, He made a Testament as a guarantee of the promised inheritance, namely the law given through Moses. But since God could not die, and a testament required the confirmation of the death of the testator, He was slain on behalf of it as the mystical lamb, and with His blood, the book and the entire people were sprinkled to confirm the promised inheritance. In the same way, the Lord Jesus Christ, calling to eternal inheritance, made a testament, namely the Gospel, not for one man alone, but for all nations. For its confirmation, not that ancient lamb is sacrificed; but He Himself (because He was a man and could die) underwent death.

And just as God, for the giving of the Old Testament, called witnesses, namely Aaron, his sister Miriam, and Ur, so Christ, who promised greater things, called many witnesses, namely the apostles and martyrs. The Old Testament is called "old" either because it was given earlier or because it pertains to ancient things. The New Testament is called "new" because it speaks of unchangeable and ever new things. A prophet is called so in three ways: by office, by grace, and by mission. By office, for example, when someone was chosen to consult the Lord in times of imminent war, either through the ephod or in any other way. By grace, as with those to whom the Lord gave knowledge of things through internal inspiration, which they could not have by nature or discipline alone, such as David, Daniel, and Job. By mission, as with those whom the Lord sent to preach the things He had inspired them, like Jonah. However, just as in these days, only those who have the dignity and power of the office are called bishops, even though there may be others who surpass them in merit and virtue, so the prophets were not called prophets unless they held the office or mission of a prophet. Thus, David, Job, and Daniel, even though they contain prophecies in their books, are classified among the Hagiographa. On the other hand, Joshua, the Book of Judges, the books of Samuel, and the books of Kings, which seem to contain only history or appear to have written it, are counted among the Prophets.

It is also asked why there are only nine Hagiographa, that is, sacred writers, when this name applies to all the authors of Sacred Scripture. To answer this, it is because it does not have any special characteristic by which it is distinguished from the others. The common name is used as if it were proper, not due to privilege, but rather to a certain insignificance in relation to the others. Just as among the nine orders of angels, the lowest simply holds the common name of angel, and when asked who it is, the response is "an angel," even though there are principalities and powers among the angels. Apocryphus, which means "doubtful" and "hidden," is called so in two ways: either because its author is uncertain or because it is not accepted and confirmed by the common consent of the faithful in the synagogue or the church, even though nothing false is found in it. Thus, the book of Job is apocryphal because its author is doubtful, but it has been confirmed in the canon by the authority of the faithful in the synagogue. Similarly, Ecclesiasticus, the Wisdom of Solomon, and the two books of Maccabees, Tobit, Judith, and the book of Jesus, son of Sirach, are apocryphal; however, they are read and pertain to the Old Testament, but they are not confirmed in the canon.

CAP. XIII.-- De fructu divinae lectionis.

Quisquis ad divinam lectionem accesserit, primum qualis sit fructus ejus agnoscat. Nihil enim sine causa appeti debet; nec desiderium trahit, quod utilitatem non promittit. Geminus est divinae lectionis fructus: quia mentem vel scientia erudit, vel moribus ornat. Docet quod scire delectat, et quod imitari expediat. Quorum alterum, id est scientia magis ad historiam et allegoriam, alterum, id est instructio morum, ad tropologiam magis respicit. Omnis divina Scriptura refertur ad hunc finem [15]. Septem liberales artes huic scientiae subserviunt. Trivium ad significationem vocum. Quadrivium ad rerum significationem respicit. Grammatica recte loqui et competenter pronuntiare voces docet. Dialectica ad distinguendas in eis significationes et ad veritatem per disputationem inquirendam valet. Rhetorica ad utrumque spectat. Physica interiores rerum naturas, mathematica exteriores figuras et numeros docet.

CHAPTER 13 - On the Fruit of Divine Reading.

Whoever approaches divine reading should first recognize what its fruit is. For nothing should be sought without a reason, and desire is not drawn towards that which does not promise utility. The fruit of divine reading is twofold: it instructs the mind either through knowledge or adorns it through morals. It teaches that which brings delight in knowing and that which is expedient to imitate. One of these, namely knowledge, pertains more to history and allegory, while the other, namely instruction in morals, pertains more to tropology. All divine Scripture refers to this purpose [15]. The seven liberal arts serve this knowledge. The trivium pertains to the meaning of words. The quadrivium pertains to the meaning of things. Grammar teaches to speak correctly and competently pronounce words. Dialectic is useful for distinguishing meanings in them and for seeking truth through disputation. Rhetoric pertains to both. Physics teaches the inner natures of things, and mathematics teaches external figures and numbers.

CAP. XIV.-- Quem fructum sacra Scriptura ex aliis capiat, et quid aliis praestet; et de septem circumstantiis quibus res significatae discernuntur.

Diligens scrutator sacri eloquii rerum significationes nequaquam negligere debet, quia sicut per voces primarum rerum notitia acquiritur, ita per significationem rerum earumdem intelligentia, quae spirituali notificatione percipiuntur, et manifestatio perficitur. Philosophus in aliis scripturis solam vocum novit significationem; sed in sacra pagina excellentior valde est rerum significatio quam vocum: quia hanc usus instituit, illam natura dictavit. Haec hominum vox est, illa Dei ad homines. Significatio vocum est ex placito hominum: significatio rerum naturalis est, et ex operatione Creatoris volentis quasdam res per alias significari. Est etiam longe multiplicior significatio rerum quam vocum. Nam paucae voces plusquam duas aut tres significationes habent; res autem quaelibet tam multiplex potest esse in significatione aliarum rerum, quot in se proprietates visibiles aut invisibiles habet communes aliis rebus. Hae autem res primae per voces significatae, et res secundas significantes, sex circumstantiis discretae considerantur: quae sunt hae, videlicet res, persona, numerus, locus, tempus, gestum. In his enim significatio rerum primarum ad secundas consideratur. Res autem in hoc loco intelligimus in materia quacunque, vel substantia inanimata coelestium sive terrestrium, constitutas: ut sunt lapides, ligna, herbae, et caetera hujusmodi, quae in elementis vel ex elementis sunt. Omnis autem res quae ad significandum proponitur in Scriptura sacra, aut secundum exteriorem formam, aut secundum interiorem naturam significat. Rem autem large hic accipimus supradicta sex continentem, sub qua et res continetur, id est materia, quam proposuimus in prima circumstantia. Omnis igitur res aut secundum interiorem naturam, aut secundum exteriorem formam significat. Sub exteriori forma figurae rerum et colores continentur; quae visu percipimus. Ad interiorem naturam pertinent aliae rerum proprietates, quas caeteris sensibus comprehendimus, ut est dulcedo in sapore, quam percipimus gustu; fragrantia in odore, quam percipimus olfactu; melos in sono, quod et quem percipimus auditu; lenitas sive asperitas in corpore et caetera hujusmodi, quae percipimus tactu. Prima illa circumstantia, id est res, quae in hoc loco stricte accipitur, dupliciter significat; verbi gratia. Nix interiori natura, scilicet frigiditate, exstinctionem fervoris libidinum; et exteriori forma, videlicet candore, munditiam operum designat.

Persona est rationalis substantiae individua essentia. Personae sunt, quae in sacra Scriptura commemorantur, in quibus secundum eventus et opera et alio quolibet modo rerum mysticarum significatio praeparatur. Persona igitur in sacro eloquio significat, ut Jacob, qui haereditatem patris accepit, Christum vel populum gentilem designat; Isaac, qui filium benedixit, Deum patrem figurat. Numerus quoque significat, ut, verbi gratia; senarius perfectionem. Unde ait B. Augustinus: Non quia Deus sex diebus cuncta opera sua condidit perfectus senarius, sed potius quia perfectus est, illum numerum Deus ad operandum praeelegit; sed quia numerus multifariam significationem habere dignoscitur, de eo aliquanto latius tractandum est.

CHAPTER 14 - On the Fruit that Sacred Scripture Receives from Others and What It Bestows on Others; and on the Seven Circumstances by Which Signified Things Are Discerned.

A diligent searcher of sacred eloquence should by no means neglect the meanings of things, for just as knowledge of primary things is acquired through words, so understanding of those same things, which are perceived through spiritual revelation, is achieved through the meaning of things, and manifestation is perfected. The philosopher in other writings knows only the meaning of words, but in the sacred page, the meaning of things is much more excellent than that of words, because usage established the former, while nature dictated the latter. The former is the voice of humans, the latter is God's to humans. The meaning of words is by human choice, while the meaning of things is natural and established by the operation of the Creator, intending certain things to be signified by others. Moreover, the meaning of things is far more manifold than that of words. For few words have more than two or three meanings, whereas any thing can have as many meanings in relation to other things as it has visible or invisible properties common to other things. These primary things signified by words, and the secondary things signifying, are considered distinct by six circumstances, namely things, persons, numbers, places, times, and actions. In these circumstances, the meaning of primary things in relation to secondary things is considered. By things in this context, we understand any matter or substance, whether inanimate celestial or terrestrial, such as stones, wood, herbs, and the like, which exist in or derive from the elements. However, every thing proposed for signification in sacred Scripture signifies either according to external form or according to inner nature. Here we broadly understand thing as encompassing the aforementioned six, under which both thing itself and the matter, which we set forth as the first circumstance, are contained.

Therefore, every thing signifies either according to its inner nature or according to its external form. Under the external form, figures of things and colors are contained; which we perceive with sight. Other properties of things pertain to their inner nature, which we comprehend through the other senses, such as sweetness in taste, which we perceive through the sense of taste; fragrance in smell, which we perceive through the sense of smell; melody in sound, which we perceive through the sense of hearing; smoothness or roughness in touch, and other similar qualities that we perceive through the sense of touch. The first circumstance, that is, the thing, which is strictly understood in this context, signifies in two ways. For example, snow signifies in its inner nature, namely coldness, the extinction of passionate heat; and in its external form, namely whiteness, it signifies the cleanliness of works.

Persona is the individual essence of a rational substance. Personae, which are mentioned in sacred Scripture, are those in which, according to events, actions, and in any other way, the signification of mystical things is prepared. Therefore, in sacred discourse, persona signifies, for example, Jacob, who received the inheritance of his father, signifies Christ or the Gentile people; Isaac, who blessed his son, signifies God the Father. Numerus (number) also signifies, for example, the number six signifies perfection. Hence, St. Augustine says: Not because God created all His works in six days as a perfect number, but rather because He is perfect, He chose that number for His work; but since it is recognized that number has manifold signification, it needs to be treated somewhat more extensively.

CAP. XV.-- De numeris mysticis sacrae Scripturae [16].

Significant autem his novem modis:
  1. Secundum ordinem positionis.
  2. Secundum qualitatem compositionis.
  3. Secundum modum porrectionis.
  4. Secundum formam dispositionis.
  5. Secundum computationem.
  6. Secundum multiplicationem.
  7. Secundum partium aggregationem.
  8. Secundum multitudinem.
  9. Secundum exaggerationem.

Numeri igitur novem modis significant in divino eloquio: secundum ordinem positionis, secundum qualitatem compositionis, secundum modum porrectionis, secundum formam dispositionis, secundum computationem, secundum multiplicationem, secundum partium aggregationem, secundum multitudinem, secundum exaggerationem.

Secundum ordinem positionis: ut unitas, quia prima est in numeris, rerum omnium significat principium. Binarius, quia secundus est, et primus ab unitate recedit, peccatum significat quo a primo bono deviatum est. Secundum qualitatem compositionis numeri significant, ut idem binarius qui sectionem recipit, et in duo dividi potest, corruptibilia et transitoria significat. Ternarius vero, quia unitate media interveniente sectionem non recipit, ut in duo aequa dividatur, indissolubilia et incorruptibilia designat.

Secundum modum porrectionis numeri significant, ut septenarius ultra senarium requiem post operationem. Octonarius ultra septenarium, aeternitatem post mutabilitatem. Novenarius ante denarium, defectum intra perfectionem. Undenarius ultra denarium, extra mensuram transgressionem.

Secundum formam dispositionis, ut denarius, qui in longum tenditur, rectitudinem fidei significat. Centenarius, quia in latum expanditur, amplitudinem charitatis. Millenarius qui in altum levatur, altitudinem spei designat. Rectitudinem ad se, latitudinem ad proximum, altitudinem ad Deum. Primae igitur et principali unitati ex his tribus membris ordine positionis, denarius proximus est; millenarius forma dispositionis. Ille loco vicinior, iste perfectione similior. Secundum numeri computationem ut denarius perfectionem significat, quia in eo porrectio computationis finem facit.

Secundum multiplicationem numeri significant, ut duodenarius universitatis signum est, quia ex ternario et quaternario invicem multiplicatis perficitur; quoniam quaternarius corporalium, ternarius spiritualium forma est.

Secundum partium aggregationem numeri significant, ut senarius forma est perfectionis, propterea quod partes ejus ternarius, binarius, unitas, aggregatae simul totum complent; et nec ultra exuberant, nec infra subsistunt, quod perfectioni convenit, in qua nec plus justo nec minus esse debet.

Secundum multitudinem partium numeri significant, ut binarius propter duas unitates charitatem Dei et proximi. Ternarius propter tres, trinitatem. Quaternarius, propter quatuor tempora, temporalia, quoniam annus et mundus quatuor partibus distinguuntur. Quinarius, quinque senius. Septenarius praesens saeculum, quod septem diebus volvitur.

Secundum exaggerationem numeri significant, cum causa exigit aggravari, et cum quadam exaggeratione iis, quae praemissa sunt, responderi, quale est illud in Levitico: Ad Adam correptiones vestras septuplum propter peccata vestra (Lev. XXVI), ubi nihil aliud quam multiplicitas poenae signatur, expressa per septenarium. Ex paucis multa sapiens perpendere discat.

CHAPTER 15 - About the mystic numbers of sacred Scripture [16].

But they signify in these nine ways:
  1. According to the order of position.
  2. According to the quality of composition.
  3. According to the mode of extension.
  4. According to the form of disposition.
  5. According to computation.
  6. According to multiplication.
  7. According to the aggregation of parts.
  8. According to multitude.
  9. According to exaggeration.

Therefore, numbers in divine discourse signify in nine ways: according to the order of position, according to the quality of composition, according to the mode of extension, according to the form of disposition, according to computation, according to multiplication, according to the aggregation of parts, according to multitude, according to exaggeration.

According to the order of position: for example, unity, because it is the first in numbers, signifies the beginning of all things. Binary, because it is the second and departs from unity, signifies sin by which one deviates from the first good. According to the quality of composition, numbers signify, such as the same binary which receives division and can be divided into two, signifies corruptible and transitory things. But the ternary, because it does not receive division with a middle unity intervening, so that it is divided into two equal parts, signifies indivisible and incorruptible things.

According to the mode of extension, numbers signify, such as the septenary beyond the senary represents rest after operation. The octonary beyond the septenary signifies eternity after mutability. The novenary before the denary represents deficiency within perfection. The undenary beyond the denary signifies excess beyond measure.

According to the mode of disposition, the denary, which extends lengthwise, signifies the rectitude of faith. The centenary, because it expands in breadth, signifies the amplitude of charity. The millenary, which is raised in height, signifies the altitude of hope. Rectitude pertains to oneself, breadth to one's neighbor, and height to God. Therefore, out of these three members in the order of position, the denary is nearest to the first and principal unity; the millenary is nearest in the mode of disposition. The former is closer in place, the latter more similar in perfection. According to the computation of numbers, the denary signifies perfection because in it the extension of computation comes to an end.

According to the multiplication of numbers, the duodenary is a sign of universality because it is made up by multiplying the ternary and quaternary together; since the quaternary is the form of corporeal things, and the ternary is the form of spiritual things.

According to the aggregation of parts, numbers signify, such as the senary is the form of perfection, because its parts (ternary, binary, unity) when combined together complete the whole; and they neither exceed nor fall short, which is fitting for perfection where there should not be more or less than what is just.

According to the multitude of parts, numbers signify, such as the binary represents the two units of the love of God and neighbor. The ternary represents the trinity through its three parts. The quaternary represents the four seasons, temporal things, as the year and the world are distinguished into four parts. The quinary represents the quintessence. The septenary represents the present age that revolves in seven days.

According to exaggeration, numbers signify when the situation requires exaggeration, and with a certain amplification, they respond to what has been mentioned, as seen in Leviticus: "And I will chastise you sevenfold for your sins" (Lev. 26), where nothing else but the multitude of punishment is signified by the expression of the septenary. Let the wise learn to deduce much from few.

CAP. XVI.-- De locis, temporibus, ac gestis mysticis sacrae Scripturae.

Haec de numeris, propter multiplicem significationem eorum, paulo prolixius prosecuti sumus. Nunc autem ad quartam circumstantiam, id est locum, vertamus sermonem. Loca significant, unde Dominus in certis et determinatis locis certa negotia geri voluit, propter significationem: ut verbi gratia, filii Israel descendentes in Aegyptum, cogente fame, oppressi sunt gravi servitute; inde vero educti a Domino per desertum quadraginta annis iter agentes, venerunt in terram promissionis, quae sita est inter Babylonem et Aegyptum. Et utraque gens, id est Aegyptii et Assyrii captivaverunt eos; sed prius Aegyptii: ista omnia significationi apta sunt. Aegyptus, quae est terra voluptuosa et deliciis affluens, mundum significat, non machinam istam, sed voluptates mundi et secularia desideria. Desertum significat vitam religiosam, per quam quasi repatriantes jejunamus a vitiis et concupiscentiis hujus saeculi. Babylon ad aquilonem posita est, ubi frigus perpetuum et obscuritas est, cum nunquam pars illa a sole contingatur. Per Assyrios igitur, id est Babylonios, daemones competenter designantur, qui ad aquilonem sedem sibi elegerunt, utpote frigore infidelitatis torpentes, et veritatis luce privati. Prius Aegyptii opprimunt Israel, deinde Assyrii, non enim in nobis potest quidquam diabolus, nisi prius trahamur a propriis concupiscentiis. Unde: Ne tradas me Domine a desiderio meo peccatori, id est diabolo (Psal. CXXXIX) .

Tempora significant. Exempli causa, Jesus erat in porticu Salomonis, et hiems erat. Ideo de hieme habita est mentio, ut per qualitatem temporum designaretur qualitas animorum, id est torpor et infidelitas Judaeorum.

Gestum significat, ut in Evangelio patet. Venit Jesus in Bethaniam, et suscitavit Lazarum; deinde per montem Oliveti venit in vallem Josaphat, et misit discipulos in civitatem propter asinam, etc. Bethania domus obedientiae. Ad obedientem tantum venit Christus, ut resuscitaret Lazarum, id est animam prius mortuam in peccatis. Cum itaque sex sint circumstantiae, quae dicuntur significare, quaecunque earum significet, aut factum significat factum et est allegoria; aut factum faciendum significat, et est moralitas. In his duobus ad cognitionem veritatis, id est integritatem fidei, et ad amorem bonitatis, id est ad perfectionem bonorum operum, instruimur. Propter quae duo legenda est divina Scriptura, scilicet ut credamus sincere, et bene operemur.

CHAPTER 16 - On the Mystical Places, Times, and Deeds of Sacred Scripture.

We have expounded somewhat extensively on numbers due to their manifold significance. Now let us turn our discourse to the fourth circumstance, namely, place. Places signify where the Lord willed certain matters to take place in specific and determined locations, for the sake of signification. For example, when the children of Israel descended into Egypt due to famine, they were oppressed with heavy servitude. Later, they were led by the Lord through the desert for forty years until they reached the promised land, which is situated between Babylon and Egypt. Both the Egyptians and the Assyrians captured them, but the Egyptians did so first. All these events are appropriate for signification. Egypt, a land abundant in pleasures and delights, signifies the world, not that material land, but the pleasures of the world and worldly desires. The desert signifies the religious life, through which we, as it were, fast from the vices and desires of this age. Babylon, located to the north, is a place of perpetual cold and darkness, as it is never touched by the sun. Therefore, by the Assyrians, that is, the Babylonians, the demons are suitably designated, who have chosen their abode in the north, being numbed by the cold of unfaithfulness and deprived of the light of truth. First, the Egyptians oppress Israel, and then the Assyrians, for the devil can have no power over us unless we are first drawn by our own desires. Hence, "Deliver me, O Lord, from my desire for sin," that is, from the devil (Psalm 139).

Times signify. For example, Jesus was in the portico of Solomon, and it was winter. The mention of winter is made to signify the quality of souls, that is, the sluggishness and unbelief of the Jews.

Deeds signify, as is evident in the Gospel. Jesus came to Bethany and raised Lazarus; then he came through the Mount of Olives to the valley of Josaphat and sent the disciples into the city for a donkey, etc. Bethany signifies the house of obedience. Christ came only to the obedient to raise Lazarus, that is, the soul previously dead in sins. Therefore, since there are six circumstances that are said to signify, whatever each of them signifies either signifies an event and is an allegory or signifies an action to be done and is a moral teaching. In these two, we are instructed in the knowledge of truth, that is, the integrity of faith, and in the love of goodness, that is, the perfection of good works. For this reason, the divine Scripture is to be read, namely, so that we may believe sincerely and act rightly.

CAP. XVII.-- De materia sacrae Scripturae.

Materia divinae Scripturae est Verbum incarnatum cum omnibus sacramentis suis, tam praecedentibus a principio mundi quam futuris usque ad finem saeculi. Et sciendum quod tota ista series et porrectio temporis dividenda est in duos status: veterem, et novum, et tria tempora naturalis legis, et scriptae et gratiae, et sex aetates. Prima aetas ab Adam usque ad Noe. Secunda a Noe usque ad Abraham. Tertia ab Abraham usque ad David. Quarta a David usque ad transmigrationem Babylonis. Quinta a transmigratione Babylonis usque ad adventum Christi. Item quinque aetates praecedentes, id est ab Adam usque ad Christum distinguuntur in quatuor successiones. Prima patriarcharum fuit ab Adam usque ad Moysem. Secunda fuit a Moyse usque ad David, quae est judicum. Tertia, quae est Regum, a David usque ad transmigrationem Babylonis. Quarta a transmigratione Babylonis usque ad Christum; et haec successio sacerdotum fuit. Status dicuntur, quia adesse hominis pertinent. Vetus dicitur status, quia in culpa et poena usque ad resurrectionem Christi. Novus autem dicitur propter innovationem vitae humanae, quae per gratiam Christi facta est usque ad finem saeculi. Item tempus naturalis legis dicitur, eo quod homo suo naturali sensui relictus fuit sine communi praeceptione. Tempus scriptae legis dicitur, eo quod tunc lex scripta in populo Dei praecepta dabat vivendi. Tempus gratiae, quia Christus gratis dedit implere quod lex praeceperat. Aetates dicuntur sex ad similitudinem aetatis hominum. Fuit enim mundus et infans et puer, etc. Et notandum quod aetates istae non distinguuntur secundum aequalia spatia temporum, sed secundum communes innovationes rerum; ut fuit diluvium, et electio Abrahae, et institutio regum et transmigratio in Babylonem, et adventus Christi. Successio patriarcharum dicitur, quia eo tempore soli patres praeerant filiis suis: quod duravit usque ad Moysem, qui, primus in populo Dei principatum tenens, judex constitutus est non tantum super filios suos, sed super totum populum Israel, licet jam multi reges essent in gentibus. Vel ideo patriarcharum successio nominatur, quia eo tempore successerunt sibi ad invicem primitivi illi patres a quibus genus humanum disseminatum est et familiae derivatae, et patriae denominatae, ut ab Edom Edumei, a Levi Levitae, a Juda Judaei

CHAPTER 17 - On the Matter of Sacred Scripture.

The matter of divine Scripture is the incarnate Word with all its sacraments, both those preceding from the beginning of the world and those that will continue until the end of time. It should be known that this entire series and span of time is divided into two states: the old and the new, and three periods: the time of natural law, the time of written law, and the time of grace, as well as six ages. The first age is from Adam to Noah. The second age is from Noah to Abraham. The third is from Abraham to David. The fourth is from David to the Babylonian exile. The fifth is from the Babylonian exile to the coming of Christ. Likewise, the five preceding ages, namely from Adam to Christ, are distinguished into four successions. The first was the age of patriarchs from Adam to Moses. The second was from Moses to David, which is the age of judges. The third, which is the age of kings, is from David to the Babylonian exile. The fourth is from the Babylonian exile to Christ, and this succession was that of the priests. They are called states because they pertain to the presence of humankind. The old state is called so because it was in guilt and punishment until the resurrection of Christ. The new state, however, is called so due to the renewal of human life, which was brought about by the grace of Christ until the end of time. Likewise, the time of natural law is so called because during that time, man was left to his natural senses without a common precept. The time of written law is so called because then the written law gave precepts for the people of God to live by. The time of grace is so called because Christ freely gave to fulfill what the law had commanded. They are called ages in analogy to the age of humans. For the world was once an infant and a child, etc. And it should be noted that these ages are not distinguished according to equal spans of time, but according to common innovations of things, such as the flood, the election of Abraham, the establishment of kings, the exile to Babylon, and the coming of Christ. The succession of the patriarchs is called so because during that time, only fathers ruled over their sons. This lasted until Moses, who, being the first to hold authority among the people of God, was appointed as a judge not only over his own sons but over the entire people of Israel, although there were already many kings among the nations. Or the succession of the patriarchs is named so because during that time, those primitive fathers succeeded one another from whom the human race was dispersed and families derived, and they were named after their fathers, such as the Edomites from Edom, the Levites from Levi, the Judeans from Judah.

CAP. XVIII.-- De difficultatibus sacrae Scripturae [17].

Multa in Scriptura sacra occurrunt, quae rerum gestarum seriem ignorantibus, difficultatum pariunt intelligendi. Quemadmodum hoc quod in libro Judith legitur, Arfaxat rex Judaeorum multas gentes suo imperio subjugasse, ac contra Nabuchodonosor regem Assyriorum pugnasse, et jure obtentus belli eidem regi Assyriorum ad omnia regna suae ditioni subjicienda spem ac confidentiam addidisse. Hinc Nabuchodonosor Holofernem, principem militiae, ad debellandas gentes misisse; qui subactis caeteris, Judaeos rebellare conantes in Bethulia obsedit, atque, Achior principe filiorum Amon narrante, didicit ipsum esse populum qui, nuper a captivitate reversus, eadem montana possedit. Si igitur quaerimus, quo tempore haec gesta sint, vel quis fuerit Nabuchodonosor iste qui in Ninive regnavit, cum Nabuchodonosor non in Ninive, sed in Babylone regnasse perhibeatur, neque Assyriorum sed Chaldaeorum fuisse rex legatur, idemque in reditu populi de captivitate Babylonis jam mortuus nequaquam dubitetur, non parva in his diligenter considerantibus dubitatio exoritur. Dicunt itaque hunc Nabuchodonosor Cambysem filium Cyri intelligendum; qui propterea ab Hebraeis secundus Nabuchodonosor appellatus est, quod, ut credebatur, illius Nabuchodonosor facta imitans, magnam in filios Israel crudelitatem exercuit. Ubi reliqua forsitan convenire potuissent, nisi quod in libro Judith legitur verbum factum in domo Nabuchodonosor anno duodecimo regni ejus, cum Cambyses filius Cyri non nisi octo annis regnasse perhibeatur. Verum in numeris multa mendacia scriptorum libris inesse deprehendimur, tamen in ejusmodi studiosus lector moveri non debet, quia aliquid est, veritati appropinquasse, illic etiam ubi non contingit in toto illam comprehendere. In libris etiam Machabaeorum et in Daniele quaedam dicuntur, quae non facile intelligere possis, nisi cognoveris primum eos qui post Alexandrum Magnum in regnum Syriae et Aegypti successerunt: In Daniele siquidem audis regem aquilonis frequenter nominari; ubi per austrum nihil aliud quam regnum Aegypti; et per aquilonem nihil aliud quam regum Syriae, secundum litteram intelligi oportet; quorum reges alternis vicibus, nunc pace nunc bello ad invicem varia tempora habuisse leguntur. Quas vicissitudines, nisi prius eorum gestis cognitis, non facile discernes. Item quod in libro Machabaeorum legimus, Antiochum atque Demetrium eorumque successores pro regno Syriae ex adverso pugnantes, ipsumque regnum quasi paterno jure hinc inde utrosque vindicantes, intelligere non poteris qua de causa factum sit, nisi agnoveris qualiter Seleucus filius Antiochi Magni, rex Syriae, moriens successorem reliquerit Antiochum Epiphaneum fratrem suum. Quo mortuo Demetrius Seleuci filius egressus ab urbe Roma venit in Syriam, in regnum videlicet patris sui. Cujus adventu comperto, exercitus qui cum Antiocho Epiphaneo fuerat, ejusdem Antiochi filium, hoc est Antiochum Eupatorem interfecit. Sicque Demetrius regnum obtinuit. Alexander vero filius Antiochi Eupatoris, cum crevisset, exercitum collegit, oppressoque Demetrio regnum recepit. Post Demetrius filius Demetrii fugato Alexandro potestatem ad se revocavit. Deinde Tryphon quidam Partium Alexandri filium, quem nutriendum acceperat, occidit. Sed illo tandem oppresso, regnum in progenie Seleuci permansit. Haec breviter ad evidentiam lectionis distinximus, ut ea quae scripta sunt, aut non legantur, aut intelligantur. Haec vero tempora Machabaeis insignia fuerunt, quorum primus Judas, zelo divinae legis accensus, impetus Graecorum fortiter propulsavit; quo mortuo Jonathas frater ejus successit. Postremo sanguine et virtute germanus defuncto Symone successit Joannes Hircanus filius ejus, et post Joannem filius ejus Aristobolus, et post Aristobolum Alexander filius ejus; post quem Alexandria uxor ejus tenuit quidem principatum generis, Hircano autem filio suo pontificalem dignitatem tribuit. Hujus Hircani tempore quidam latrunculi ab Hierosolymis egressi circa Ascalonem praedas egerunt, ubi inter caeteros captivos Antipater quidam juvenis, cujusdam Herodis genere Idumaei, qui in Ascalone templi Apollinis sacerdos exstitit, filius, Hierosolymam captivus ductus est. Hic itaque Antipater in domo Hircani aliquot annis serviens, industria ac probitate spectabilis, eidem Hircano domino suo gratiosus exstitit, in tantum ut ei universam domum suam committeret. Circa haec tempora contigit ut Antigonus, Hircani pontificis frater junior, eumdem Hircanum a pontificatu propellens, sacerdotii dignitatem arriperet. Cumque Pompeius consul Romanorum tunc per Syriam exercitum duceret, supradictus Antipater, missus ab Hircano domino suo ad Pompeium veniens, impetravit ut cum exercitu Hierosolymam ascenderet, et dejecto Antigono, sacerdotii dignitatem Hircano reformaret. Pompeius itaque, restituto Hircano, tributa terrae solvenda indixit, atque eumdem Antipatrum universae regioni praefecit recedens. Antipater autem antiquae gratiae non immemor erga Hircanum benignus exstitit, tantaque modestia injunctum officium exercuit, ut tam Judaeis quam Romanis complaceret. Genuit autem filium Herodem nomine; qui post mortem patris tum merito propriae virtutis, tum etiam gratia paternae devotionis a Romanis coronam accepit, et rex factus est. Hic est Herodes, cujus regni anno tricesimo primo natus est Christus. Qui quoniam alienigena primus Judaeae regnum susceperat, audita fama per magos de nativitate regis Judaeorum, territus est. Et ne forte regnum quod usurpaverat, amitteret, quem successorem timuit, exstinguere conabatur. Peremit itaque innocentes, ut, universis morientibus, ille, quem unum insectabatur, non evaderet. Hic etiam Herodes, post alias uxores quas primitus duxerat, Mariannem quamdam, Hircani pontificis neptem, factus rex duxit uxorem, de qua duos genuit filios Alexandrum et Aristobolum. Sed haec cum postea et propter speciem, et propter generis dignitatem insolesceret, animum ejus adversum se graviter exacerbavit; accessit huic molestiae quod ab aliis concubinis de stupro accusata est, in tantum ut etiam Antonio consuli Romanorum, qui tunc in partibus orientis agebat, imaginem sui pictam ad ipsius animum in amorem sui concitandum misisse diceretur. Qua suspicione fractus Herodes sororio suo cum quo consilia sua communicare consueverat, secretum aperit, eamque interfici jubet. Ille vim amoris considerans, et furoris jussa poenitentiam subsecuturam sciens, Mariannem secreto corripit, et nisi adversus maritum humilietur, quod periculum immineat, ostendit. Timor contumacem mansuefecit; sicque brevi mutatis moribus Herodis animum ad amorem sui reparavit. Inter haec cum quadam die solus cum sola blandius jocaretur suumque amorem jactaret: Verum (inquit illa) quomodo amas, quam mortuam malles quam vivam? Nam et interfici me praecepisti. Ille, se proditum agnoscens, cum furore surrexit; et quia jam prius quaedam verba de amore hujus ac sororii sui sinistra audierat, nunc rem auditam quasi probatam credens, jubet utrosque occidi. Post autem poenitentia ductus, furorem furore mutavit, et per singula momenta Mariannem clamans, se sine illa vivere non posse dicebat. Accessit concubinarum pestifera delatio, quae filios in ultionem sanguinis adversus patrem armari testatur. Ille ergo missis Romam litteris a senatu impetravit ut parricidas et insidiatores vitae suae necaret, sicque post matrem filiis trucidatis, et ipse postea quoque diuturnis doloribus contabescens, morte miserabili vitam finivit. Reliquit successores filios, Archelaum regem in Judaea, Herodem tetrarcham in Galilaea, Philippum autem tetrarcham in Iturea et Traconitide regione, et Lisaniam in Abilina. Archelaus autem, cum novem annis post ipsum patrem regnasset, apud Romanos a Judaeis de insolentia accusatus, regno exsulans Lugdunum in exsilium mittitur: ubi et vita functus est. Romani autem ad procurandam Judaeam praesides posuerunt. Herodes autem tetrarcha Galilaeae Philippo fratri suo uxorem ejus nomine Herodiadem filiam Aretae regis Arabum, abstulit, eamque sibi contra morem in conjugium copulavit. Pro quo scelere cum a Joanne Baptista argueretur, suggéstione Herodiadis ipsum Joannem decollavit. Hic est Herodes tetrarcha filius Magni Herodis qui in passione Domini Hierosolymam ascendisse legitur, et qui Jesum a Pilato praeside ad se missum, alba veste indutum illusit, atque ad Pilatum judicandum remisit. Porro Aristobolus filius Herodis Magni, atque hujus Herodis frater ex Marianne matre natus, quem superius a patre Herode et ob suspicionem parricidii trucidatum diximus, filium habuit nomine Agrippam. Qui cum adultus esset, orbatum et exhaeredatum se cernens, quanta potuit pecunia collecta, Romam perrexit; ibique cuidam Caio Caligulae nepoti Tiberii Caesaris familiaritate junctus est. Qui Caius, cum post mortem Tiberii imperium sumpsisset, eumdem Agrippam ob meritum pristinae devotionis in Phoenicia regem constituit. Herodias autem hoc audito, Herodem de ignavia reprehendere coepit, quod videlicet ipse divitiis major et potentiis, a Romano principe hanc dignitatem sibi non acquisisset; qua exprobratione irritatus Herodes, cum ipsa Herodiade pecunia multa assumpta, Romam profectus est. Cumque apud Caium quereretur quod sibi hic honor collatus potius non fuisset, indignatus Caius inconcessa petenti, etiam concessa tollenda decrevit. Sicque Herodes pariter cum Herodiade ad Hispanias in exsilium missus est, hic finis Herodis. Verum Agrippa, qui Herodes cognominatus est, ipse est qui Jacobum fratrem Joannis gladio peremit, Petrumque in carcerem missum quatuor quaternionibus militum custodiendum tradidit. Hic cum quadam die cum Tyriis ac Sidoniis causam acturus processisset, et pro splendore deauratarum vestium solisque radio lucentium Deus et non homo conclamaretur, in superbiam elatus subito ab angelo percussus est. Et post aliquot dies perseverante aegritudine vitam finivit. Huic successit filius Agrippa, qui in Actibus apostolorum (Act. XXV) cum Bernice18 matresua ad Festum praesidem visendum et salutandum descendisse legitur, atque cum Paulo eidem praesidi praesentato quaedam jucunde confabulatus memoratur (Act. XXVI). Hujus tempore regnum Judaeorum a Tito et Vespasiano subversum est. Primus itaque Herodes fuit ille, sub quo Christus natus est, qui et parvulos trucidavit. Secundus filius ejus sub quo Christus passus est, qui Joannem Baptistam decollavit. Tertius Agrippa Herodes, cujus avus fuit primus Herodes. Secundus patruus qui Jacobum interfecit.

CHAPTER 18.-- On the Difficulties of Sacred Scripture [17].

Many things occur in sacred Scripture that pose difficulties in understanding for those ignorant of the sequence of events. For example, in the book of Judith, it is read that Arphaxad, the king of the Jews, had subjugated many nations under his rule and fought against Nebuchadnezzar, the king of the Assyrians, and, with the right of war on his side, added hope and confidence to the same Assyrian king in his ambition to subject all kingdoms to his dominion. Hence, Nebuchadnezzar sent Holofernes, the chief of his army, to subdue the remaining nations. After conquering others, he besieged the Jews who were attempting to rebel in Bethulia. And upon hearing the account from Achior, the leader of the Ammonites, he learned that they were the people who, recently returned from captivity, possessed the same mountainous region. Therefore, if we inquire about the time when these events took place or who this Nebuchadnezzar was who reigned in Nineveh, for it is reported that Nebuchadnezzar reigned not in Nineveh but in Babylon and that he was the king of the Chaldeans, and it is certain that he had already died during the return of the people from the captivity of Babylon, considerable doubt arises for those who carefully consider these matters. Thus, they say that this Nebuchadnezzar should be understood as Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, who was therefore called the second Nebuchadnezzar by the Hebrews because, it was believed, he imitated the deeds of that Nebuchadnezzar and inflicted great cruelty upon the children of Israel. Where the remaining details could have perhaps been reconciled, except that in the book of Judith it is read that the word was spoken in the house of Nebuchadnezzar in the twelfth year of his reign, whereas Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, is reported to have reigned for only eight years. Indeed, we find many falsehoods in the numbers of the writings of authors, yet the diligent reader should not be swayed by such matters, for there is something to have come close to the truth, even where it is not possible to fully comprehend it. In the books of the Maccabees and in Daniel, certain things are said that are not easily understood unless you first become acquainted with those who succeeded after Alexander the Great in the kingdom of Syria and Egypt. In Daniel, for instance, you often hear the king of the north mentioned, where nothing else is meant but the kingdom of Egypt, and by the king of the south, nothing else is meant but the kings of Syria, according to the letter; it is said that these kings alternately had various periods of peace and war with each other. Unless you are familiar with their deeds beforehand, it is not easily discerned. Also, what we read in the book of the Maccabees about Antiochus and Demetrius and their successors, fighting against each other for the kingdom of Syria and both claiming the kingdom as their own by paternal right, you will not be able to understand the reason for it unless you know how Seleucus, the son of Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria, left his brother Antiochus Epiphanes as his successor upon his death. After his death, Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, left Rome and came to Syria, that is, to the kingdom of his father. Upon learning of his arrival, the army that was with Antiochus Epiphanes, the son of the same Antiochus, killed his own son, that is, Antiochus Epiphanes. Thus, Demetrius obtained the kingdom. But Alexander, the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, when he grew up, gathered an army and overthrew Demetrius, reclaiming the kingdom. After Demetrius, the son of Demetrius, fled, Alexander restored power to himself. Then, a certain Tryphon, who was entrusted with the upbringing of Alexander's son, killed him. But when Tryphon was finally overthrown, the kingdom remained in the Seleucid dynasty. We have briefly outlined these things to clarify the reading, so that what is written may either be read or understood. These were indeed significant times for the Maccabees, among whom the first was Judas, who, inflamed with zeal for the divine law, bravely repelled the attacks of the Greeks. After his death, his brother Jonathan succeeded him. Finally, after the bloodshed and valor of his brother, Simon, his son John Hyrcanus succeeded, and after John, his son Aristobulus, and after Aristobulus, his son Alexander. After Alexander, his wife Alexandria held the leadership of the family, while bestowing the high priesthood upon her son Hyrcanus. During the time of this Hyrcanus, some bandits who had emerged from Jerusalem carried out plundering raids near Ascalon, where among the other captives was a certain young man named Antipater, of Idumean descent, whose father was a priest of Apollo in Ascalon. Antipater, therefore, while serving in the household of Hyrcanus for several years, distinguished himself through his industry and integrity, becoming highly favored by his master Hyrcanus to the extent that he entrusted his entire household to him. Around this time, it so happened that Antigonus, the younger brother of the high priest Hyrcanus, ousted the same Hyrcanus from the high priesthood and seized the dignity of the priesthood for himself. And when Pompey, the consul of the Romans, was leading his army through Syria at that time, the aforementioned Antipater, sent by his master Hyrcanus, came to Pompey and obtained his ascent to ascend to Jerusalem with the army, and after removing Antigonus, restore the high priesthood to Hyrcanus. Therefore, Pompey, having reinstated Hyrcanus, imposed the payment of tribute on the land and appointed the same Antipater as the governor of the entire region before departing. However, Antipater, not forgetting his previous goodwill towards Hyrcanus, proved to be kind and performed his assigned duties with such modesty that he pleased both the Jews and the Romans. He begot a son named Herod, who, after the death of his father, rightfully received from the Romans both the crown due to his own merits and the favor of his father's devotion, and he became king. This is Herod, in whose thirty-first year of reign Christ was born. Since he, being a foreigner, had assumed the kingdom of Judea, he was alarmed upon hearing the reports of the birth of the king of the Jews from the Magi. And fearing that he might lose the kingdom he had usurped to the one whom he dreaded as his successor, he attempted to extinguish him. He thus killed the innocent, so that among the dying multitude, the one whom he was pursuing would not escape. This Herod also, after his other wives whom he had previously married, took as his wife a certain Mariamne, the granddaughter of the high priest Hyrcanus, and she bore him two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. However, as Mariamne later became proud both in appearance and due to the dignity of her lineage, she greatly provoked his anger against her. Added to this annoyance was the fact that she was accused of adultery by other concubines, to the extent that it was said that she even sent a painted portrait of herself to Antony, the consul of the Romans who was then in the eastern regions, in order to incite his affection towards her. Herod, shattered by this suspicion, confided in his brother-in-law with whom he used to share his secrets, and ordered her to be killed. Considering the power of love and knowing that the commands of his fury would be followed by remorse, he secretly reproached Mariamne and warned her that unless she humbled herself before her husband, impending danger awaited her. Fear softened her defiant spirit, and thus, by quickly changing his behavior, Herod restored his affection towards her. Amidst this, one day when they were alone and he was playfully flirting with her, boasting about his love for her, she said, "But how do you love me? You would rather have me dead than alive! For you have ordered my death." Recognizing that he had been betrayed, he rose in fury. And since he had already heard certain words about her love affair with his sister's husband, now believing the matter to be proven, he ordered both of them to be killed. However, later driven by remorse, he transformed his fury with fury and, at every moment, calling for Mariamne, he declared that he could not live without her. Furthermore, a harmful accusation from his concubines emerged, testifying that his sons were being armed against their father for revenge. Therefore, he sent letters to Rome, obtained from the Senate the permission to execute the murderers and conspirators against his life. After the slaughter of his sons following the murder of their mother, he himself wasted away with prolonged sorrow and ended his life in a miserable death. He left behind his sons as successors: Archelaus as king in Judea, Herod as tetrarch in Galilee, Philip as tetrarch in the region of Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias as tetrarch in Abilene. However, Archelaus, having reigned for nine years after his father, was accused by the Jews before the Romans for his insolence and was exiled to Lyon. He died there. The Romans appointed governors to administer Judea. Herod, the tetrarch of Galilee, took away the wife of his brother Philip named Herodias, the daughter of Aretas, the king of the Arabs, and contrary to custom, he married her. When he was accused by John the Baptist for this crime, under the influence of Herodias, he ordered the execution of John. This is the same Herod, the tetrarch, the son of the Great Herod, who is mentioned to have gone up to Jerusalem during the Passion of the Lord, and who mocked Jesus when He was sent to him by Pilate, dressing Him in a white robe, and then sent Him back to Pilate for judgment. Moreover, Aristobulus, the son of the Great Herod, and the brother of this Herod, born from his mother Mariamne, whom we mentioned earlier as being slain by his father Herod due to suspicion of parricide, had a son named Agrippa. When Agrippa reached adulthood and saw himself orphaned and disinherited, he collected as much money as he could and went to Rome, where he formed a friendship with a certain Gaius, the grandson of Tiberius Caesar. When Gaius assumed power after the death of Tiberius, due to Agrippa's previous loyalty, he appointed him as the king of Phoenicia. However, upon hearing this, Herodias began to reproach Herod for his lack of ambition, claiming that he, with his wealth and power, had not acquired this dignity from the Roman ruler. Irritated by this reproach, Herod, together with Herodias, took a large sum of money and went to Rome. And when he complained to Gaius that this honor had not been bestowed upon him, Gaius, indignant at his request being denied, decreed to revoke even what had been granted. Thus, both Herod and Herodias were sent into exile in Spain, marking the end of Herod's life. As for Agrippa, who was also called Herod, he is the one who put James, the brother of John, to death with the sword and had Peter thrown into prison, placing him under the guard of four squads of soldiers. One day, as he was about to argue his case before the people of Tyre and Sidon, who praised him as a god due to the splendor of his golden robes and radiant appearance, he was suddenly struck down by an angel in his pride. After a few days of lingering illness, he died. He was succeeded by his son Agrippa, who is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles as having come down with his mother Bernice to visit and greet Festus, the governor, and is also recorded to have had a pleasant conversation with Paul in the presence of the same governor. It was during his reign that the kingdom of the Jews was overthrown by Titus and Vespasian. The first Herod was the one under whom Christ was born, and he slaughtered the infants. The second was his son, under whom Christ suffered, and who beheaded John the Baptist. The third was Agrippa Herod, whose grandfather was the first Herod, and his second uncle was the one who killed James.

Footnotes:

[1] Vide amplius Dried. lib. I, cap. 1. De Ecclesiasticis scripturis, et Dogmatibus: atque oeconomia Bibliorum lib. I, tab. 5.

See more in Dried., Book I, Chapter 1, On Ecclesiastical Scriptures and Dogmas: and Bibliorum Oeconomia, Book I, Table 5.

[2] Plures sacrae Scripturae ab aliis scripturis distinctiones non spernenda adnotat Georg. Ederus in suis Oeconomiis Bibliorum, lib. I, tab. 12, 13, 14 et 15.

Georg. Ederus in his Oeconomia Bibliorum, Book I, Tables 12, 13, 14, and 15, notes several distinctions of sacred Scriptures from other writings that should not be disregarded.

[3] Circa divinae Scripturae expositionum genera, vide quae uberius et abundantius colligit F. Sixtus in sua Biblia lib. III, I part., prope initium; et Georg. Ederus in suis Bibliorum Oeconomiis, lib. I, tab. 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70 et 71.

Concerning the various genres of divine Scripture exposition, refer to the more extensive and comprehensive collection by F. Sixtus in his Biblia, Book III, Part I, near the beginning; and Georg. Ederus in his Oeconomia Bibliorum, Book I, Tables 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, and 71.

[4] Idem fere adnotat D. Georg. Ederus, in suis Oeconomiis Bibliorum, lib. I, tab. 72.

The same is nearly noted by D. Georg. Ederus in his Oeconomia Bibliorum, Book I, Table 72.

[5] Vide Bibliothecam sanctam, lib. III, 1 part.

See Bibliothecam sanctam, Book III, Part I.

[6] Tit. De usu, et utilitate historicae ac mysticae expositionis.

Title: On the use and utility of historical and mystical exposition.

[7] De his copiosius habes apud F. Sixtum in sua Bibliotheca, lib. XI, part. I, quasi per totum. Et apud Georgium Ederum in Oeconomiis Bibliorum, lib. I, tab. 17 usque ad 47; et apud D. Michaelem de Medicina, in suis Commentariis; sicque apud Petrum Aureolum in suo Compendio.

You have more copious references on these matters in F. Sixtus’ Bibliotheca, Book XI, Part I, almost throughout. And in Georgius Ederus’ Oeconomia Bibliorum, Book I, from Table 17 to 47; and in D. Michael de Medicina’s Commentaries; and likewise in Petrus Aureolus’ Compendium.

[8] De hoc singulariter vide F. Sixtum in sua Bibliotheca, lib. XI, part. I, qui doctissime sacrorum librorum scriptores exponere videtur.

Concerning this matter, see especially F. Sixtus in his Bibliotheca, Book XI, Part I, who seems to expertly expound the writers of sacred books.

[9] De hoc meminit Bibl. sancta, lib. XI, part., I tit. Esdrae libri duo.

This is mentioned in the Holy Bible, Book XI, Part I, Title: The Two Books of Esdras.

[10] Circa hanc materiam multa colligit F. Sixtus in II par. suae Biblio. lib. VIII, ubi de Translationibus sacrae Scripturae loquitur.

F. Sixtus extensively covers this topic in the second part of his Bibliotheca, Book VIII, where he speaks about the translations of sacred Scripture

[11] In Prolog. Bibliorum.

In the Prologue of the Bible.

[12] Quamplura disserit de hoc F. Sixtus in sua Bibliot. lib. XI, par. I, tit. de Scripturis et scriptoribus Novi Testamenti.

F. Sixtus discusses many aspects of this in his Bibliotheca, Book XI, Part I, Title: On the Scriptures and Writers of the New Testament.

[13] De scriptis apocryphis vide quae ad unguem colligit idem F. Sixtus in sua Bibl. lib. XI, par. I, tit. de Scripturis apocryphis; et D. Georg. Ederus in suis Oeconomiis Bibliorum, lib. I, tab. 44.

For apocryphal writings, refer to the detailed collection by F. Sixtus in his Bibliotheca, Book XI, Part I, Title: On Apocryphal Scriptures; and D. Georg. Ederus in his Oeconomia Bibliorum, Book I, Table 44.

[14] De his vide Isidorum Hisp. lib. VI Etymol.

Concerning this, see Isidore of Seville in his Etymologiae, Book VI.

[15] Fructum divinae lectionis explicatius habesapud Georgium Ederum in suis Oeconomiis Biblioth., tab. 84.

For a more detailed explanation of the fruit of divine reading, refer to Georgius Ederus in his Oeconomia Biblioth., Table 84.

[16] De numeris sacrae Scripturae mysticis vide Rabanum, Jodocum Clithoveum, et inter recentiores Petrum Bongum Bergomensem.

For mystical numbers in sacred Scripture, consult Rabanus, Jodocus Clithoveus, and among more recent authors, Petrus Bongus of Bergamo.

[17] Toti huic c. multum confert doctrina Melchioris Cani, in lib. XI suorum Locorum. Theolog. Aliis. Beroronice dicitur.

The doctrine of Melchior Canus in his Book XI of Locorum Theologicorum greatly contributes to this entire chapter. Others. It is called Beroronice.

1 thought on “Hugh of Saint-Victor On Sacred Scripture [English translation]”

  1. Great work, Scott! Rereading this as we approach the 506th anniversary of the Reformation. This caught my eye in Chapter 6 on the Scriptures: “And it was done by a certain marvelous divine arrangement …”. That’s a significant observation.
    Thanks for your hard work on this.

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